dzy493941464's blog

By dzy493941464, 3 years ago, In English,

The editorial is updated.

447A - DZY Loves Hash

We just need an array to store the numbers inserted and check whether a conflict happens. It's easy.

447B - DZY Loves Strings

Firstly the optimal way is to insert letter with maximal wi. Let {wi}. If we insert this character into the k'th position, the extra value we could get is equal to . Because of wsi ≤ num, when k = n + 1, we can get the largest extra value.

So if we insert the k letters at the end of S, we will get the largest possible value.

446A - DZY Loves Sequences

We can first calculate li for each 1 ≤ i ≤ n, satisfying ai - li + 1 < ai - li + 2 < ... < ai, which li is maximal.

Then calculate ri, satisfying ai < ai + 1 < ... < ai + ri - 1, which ri is also maximal.

Update the answer , when ai - 1 + 1 < ai + 1.

It's easy to solve this problem in O(n).

446B - DZY Loves Modification

If p = 0, apperently the best choice is choosing the row or column which can give greatest pleasure value each time.

Ignore p first,then we can get a greatest number ans. Then if we choose rows for i times, choose columns for k - i times, ans should subtract (k - i) × i × p.

So we could enumerate i form 0 to k and calculate ansi - (k - i) * i * p each time, max {ansi - (k - i) * i * p} is the maximum possible pleasure value DZY could get.

Let ai be the maximum pleasure value we can get after choosing i rows and bi be the maximum pleasure value we can get after choosing i columns. Then ansi = ai + bk - i. We can use two priority queues to calculate ai and bi quickly.

446C - DZY Loves Fibonacci Numbers

As we know,

Fortunately, we find that

So,

With multiplicative inverse, we find,

Now,

As you see, we can just maintain the sum of a Geometric progression

This is a simple problem which can be solved with segment tree in .

446D - DZY Loves Games

Define important room as the trap room. Let w(u, v) be equal to the probability that DZY starts at u (u is a important room or u=1) and v is the next important room DZY arrived. For each u, we can calculate w(u, v) in O(n3) by gauss elimination.

Let Ai be equal to the i'th important room DZY arrived. So Ak - 1 = n, specially A0 = 1. Let ans be the probability for DZY to open the bonus round. Easily we can know . So we can calculate ans in (a is equal to the number of important rooms) by matrix multiplication.

So we can solve the problem in . we should optimize this algorithm.

We can find that each time we do gauss elimination, the variable matrix is unchanged. So we can do gauss elimination once to do preprocessing in O(n3). Then for each time calculating w(u, v), the only thing to do is substitute the constants. In this way we can calculate w(u, v) in O(n3).

In this way, we can solve this problem in

446E - DZY Loves Bridges

Let n = 2m. For convenience, we use indices 0, 1, ..., n - 1 here instead of 1, 2, ..., n, so we define a0 = an.

Obviously this problem requires matrix multiplication. We define row vector , and matrix , where bii = 1, . The answer is row vector .

Since n can be up to 3 × 107, we need a more efficient way to calculate. Let denote the matrix when m = k. For example,

Define , then we can easily find that

where denotes the identity matrix.

For an n × n matrix and a constant r, we can prove by induction that

Let α1, α2 be two 1 × n vectors, then we have

This result seems useful. Suppose we want to find , where , we have

so we just need to find , which is a self-similar problem. By recursion, it can be solved in time T(n) = T(n / 2) + O(n) = O(n).

 
 
 
 
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3 years ago, # |
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I think I found this editorial first!

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wow so fast Editorial.. such a hard round..

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nobody solved Div-1 E. did u have to go and make the explanation so scary? :D

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    well……it is very common that no one solve a Chinse Round Div1E…… :D

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3 years ago, # |
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I have a small query in 446A — DZY Loves Sequences question.

For the input :

3 5 1 2

The output should be 2 because the value should be strictly > 1 right ?

But in the test cases, it is given 3. Why?

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    For example 3 5 8 2

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Change 5 to 0, or some negative integers ...

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    negative numbers are still integers.

    You can change 5 to 0.

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Problem statement says that the replaced number can be any integer not positive integer.

    So, this sequence can be transformed into 0 1 2 and thus the answer is 3.

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      2 years ago, # ^ |
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      Replaced number is ANY integer, ah! No wonder I was getting WA repeatedly.

      I looked at the range of inputted integers (1<=ai<=10^9) and assumed that the replaced integer falls in that range as well.

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3 years ago, # |
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Is there anybody who solved Div1C in that way?

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    I didn't code, but I came up with that.

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    I solved it in the way the same as the editorial. my submission..7085786 and I have found use Segment Tree to maintain Matrix can get ac too. for example:7084920

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Another way to solve Div1 C would be to use a sparse table. Let dp[i][l] be the sum of fibonacci numbers from range i to i+(2^l)-1. This can be precalculated in nlog(n). Sum for any range l-r can now be calculated in log(n).

    This is followed by segmented tree with lazy propagataion for each query. Time complexity for each test case is q*log(n)^2.

    This is the simplest/easiest solution I could think of.

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      did you solve it in that way? I would like to see your code.

      its better to build an array of fibonacci sum from 1 to i, O(N) memory instead of O(N logN).

      I implemented a segment tree with lazy updates but I always got TLE. (7087584

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        3 years ago, # ^ |
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        Sorry I misunderstood the problem which messed up my thinking. Forget about what I said.

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          3 years ago, # ^ |
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          No, your solution should work. It's just that you don't need a sparse table (but you can work with it) and the hard part of the solution is the lazy propagated segment tree.

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            3 years ago, # ^ |
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            Xellos, can you tell me why my solution is too slow?

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              3 years ago, # ^ |
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              Instead of trying to decipher a Java code (it's an alien language to me :D), I'd take a guess that your lazy updates aren't implemented well and actually take O(interval size) and not O(1) for updating a vertex containing that interval. Your code takes 3 seconds on N = 104, from which you can guess that something's extremely wrong.

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                3 years ago, # ^ |
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                I gonna check that, my implementatigor AC in spoj (Horrible queries) but I may made a mistake while editing it.

                thanks.

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                  3 years ago, # ^ |
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                  Or weak cases in that problem. Or something. Anyway, if it takes 4 seconds on 10x smaller inputs than max, it can't be ok asymptotically.

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Uh... the editorial for C is way too much magic. There are simpler solutions, if we just use general Fibonacii sequences (starting with a, b). Then, using matrix multiplication, we can compute the coefficients ca, cb of the k-th element of this sequence (aca + bcb) and sa, sb of the sum of the first k elements (asa + bsb). The rest is just a standard lazy-loading interval tree (e.g. segment tree with lazy propagation), where we just remember that we want to add to the whole interval of vertex v sequences with sums starting with v.a, v.b, the sum in this interval, and are able to compute the changes in sum and what the k-th elements of this sequence will be.

Code: 7092191. Works comfortably in less than a second.

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Btw:

    We can do this without matrix multiplication:

    1) F(a, b, k) = a * fk - 2 + b * fk - 1 -- k-th element of general Fibonacii sequences starting with a, b, where fii-th Fibonacci numbers (starting from 1, 1).

    2) sum of first k members of general Fibonacci sequence Fi equals to Fk + 2 - F2.

    So we only need to precalculate Fibonacci numbers.

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      Yeah, I know. Still, I think using matrix multiplication is kind of closer to a programmer's mindset and writing it takes about as much time as checking if you've got the exactly correct formulas (which I didn't, that's why I didn't even bother writing them :D).

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Can you explain, please, solution with lazy segment tree? I can't understand how we should recalculate a[l] .. a[r] with O(log(n)) time, I know how to lazy add a one number to every element in segment with O(log(n)), but i can't understand how to add different numbers to elements in segment with O(log(n)).

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      Check my code for exact formulas; the idea is that if we add to the same interval a Fibonacci sequence starting with a1, b1 and another sequence starting with a2, b2, then it's the same as adding a sequence starting with a1 + a2, b1 + b2, and that's the same as adding (for a matrix A, whose powers I compute as pw[]) the bottom element of (it's a vector, not a binomial coefficient) to the k-th element of this interval. This also allows us to know what this sequence looks like from the c-th (not 0-th) element: it's just a Fibonacci sequence starting with . Using this property, we can convert a sequence (given by its first 2 elements) that's added to an interval into 2 sequences (also given by first 2 elements) that are added to 2 subintervals, which forms the basis of lazy propagation. Using precalculated , we can easily calculate the sum of any Fibonacci sequence just based on its first 2 elements.

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    why can't we just keep the cumulative sum modulo in the fibonacci array ?

    I mean like Ai = (Ai-1+Ai-2)mod p . and then each query we add (Ar-Al+1)%p to the segment tree. ?

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      I'm not sure what you mean, and I think if you didn't just write "add [constant] to the segment tree", I'd understand it better. Maybe your idea is the same as what I wrote, just with Fibonacci numbers instead of matrices (whose elements are Fibonacci numbers, anyway).

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        3 years ago, # ^ |
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        No , I meant that I generate all the Fibonacci numbers modulo from 1 to 3000005. so , I have got this Fibonacci array fib , where fib[i] = (fib[i-1]+fib[i-2]) % 100000009. now I create another array cumulative Fibonacci , cumfib , where cumfib[i] = (cumfib[i-1] + fib[i])%1000009

        Now , when we got a query l,r on the segment tree for values l...r , we just add cumfib[r]-cumfib[l] to the interval l...r of the tree. Will this work ?

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          3 years ago, # ^ |
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          You're wrong. Suppose you had an array of size 2 and an "add" query on the interval [1,2]. Your cumfib[] should be 2 (as F1 + F2), so you'd add 2 to the interval [1,2]. But if you then had to find the sum from interval [1,1], how would you do that? You only know that you added 2 to [1,2], but not what sequences formed it.

          You're probably missing the whole concept of segment trees with interval updates and queries.

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            3 years ago, # ^ |
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            yeah , I understand now... thanks! but can you please explain your soln a bit more? I mean what are a,b and ca,cb ?

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              3 years ago, # ^ |
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              a, b are the first and second element of the sequence and ca, cb, sa, sb are just some coefficients (obtained by matrix multiplication, I don't want to just rewrite the formulas from my code, but you can try yourself that they produce the desired results... or just google something about how Fibonacci numbers work with matrix multiplication). There are 2 main and well known concepts here: using matrices to compute Fibonacci numbers and lazy-loading interval tree (lazy propagation segment tree), the rest is mostly about rewriting the formulas into the code correctly.

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              3 years ago, # ^ |
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              My solution here http://codeforces.com/contest/446/submission/7094142 is without matrix operations. It just uses standard identities for summing fibonacci numbers.

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                3 years ago, # ^ |
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                Deleted, wrong place (a few comments too high) and time (3 at night) to post...

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                  6 months ago, # ^ |
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                  Xellos, can you please help me. I tried the way jibon_ebong_shomoy said earlier. But with lazy propagation. And my code gives correct output for testcases up to 9. In the ninth test case, it's giving memory limit exceeded. Can you please help me? Here's my code. http://codeforces.com/contest/446/submission/27715933

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            2 years ago, # ^ |
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            Hi Xellos, I think this approach might work if we propagate to children more carefully!! I tried my best to implement but ,stuck with a bug Please take a look at my submission here:14316365

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Xellos You know what you are simply awesome. Your code , your explanation everything. you are an asset to this community... Thanks for your life saving short and effective editorial for this awesome problem.

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    forgive me please, but why in tutorial of D in div2 we can write real number not integer?

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"As you see, we can just maintain the sum of a Geometric progression .

This is a simple problem which can be solved with segment tree in O(q log n)."

Hm, I came up with that reduction and with maintaining the sum of a geometric progression, but I definitely won't call that maintaining easy. Btw that solution exists, because square root of 5 mod 1e9 + 9 exists, but it can still be done by some standard operations on matrices (assuming we already know how to maintain sum of a geo progression) even if 5 is a quadratic nonresidue.

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This was nice (AC before System Test) :

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In Div1C, Fn=sqrt(5)/5*(((1+sqrt(5))/2)^n - (((1-sqrt(5))/2)^n)) so Fn should be 276601605*(691504013^n - 308495997^n).

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    In div. 1 C so Fn should be 276601605 * (691504013n - 308495997n).

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      Thank you for decoration. I did not find how to use tex markup here.

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        3 years ago, # ^ |
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        You write math the same way you'd do it in any TeX document: put the formulas in $.

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        3 years ago, # ^ |
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        Put your formula inside the $$

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Thank you author of this editorial for making that mistake :)! I just won 20zł (zł is currency in Poland) with marcin_smu thanks to that.

    He asked me which one of those two possible values of he should choose (of course if there is at least one then there are exactly two of them). I replied that it doesn't matter, because only property of mod 109 + 9 is that its square is 5. He replied that if we will take second value instead of first, we will get negated sequence and offered me a bet. I looked at that formula in editorial and it convinced me even more, because I noticed that it is very probable that he thought like that because of that typo in editorial and agreed to the bet. And it was exactly as I suspected :D.

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      That was a bit confusing @@. So we can choose both values of sqrt(5) ?

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        3 years ago, # ^ |
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        Yyy, yes, I just explained that. We don't need anywhere exact value of . It's not important that its decimal representation is sth like 2.2 and it's not important that mod 109 + 9 it can be 383(...) but one thing which is important is that its square is 5.

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About the answer to 446B, can somebody please explain this to me:

"Ignore p first,then we can get a greatest number ans. Then if we choose rows for i times, choose columns for k - i times, ans should subtract (k - i) × i × p."

What does it mean to ignore p first? Isn't it important what rows and columns we are choosing? Why?

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    The effect of p is constant on all rows and columns ... It just depends on how many row operations you make out of the k operations.

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For Div2. C. how can we calculate Li and Ri for all i in linear time?

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How can we came up with such solution of Div 2C problem? What is first step for such problems? Maybe that is easy but it seems tricky magic for me

Can someone explain this issue, please?

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    First of all , you know you can change only one number. So why not try each number for 1 to n and see if I can change this what is the value.

    Now suppose you are at index i. Now the thing is , you need to know how far the decreasing goes at the left of i. for example , 12 2 3 5 1 9 , you see for i= 4 , we get 5,3,2 that is 3 length, Similarly you have to catch at right which is only 9. And now to see if you can change the value. the difference between i-1 and i+1 i.e 5 and 9 is 4 , so you can insert a number such as 6,7 or 8 there and make the sequence increasing . Now the length of the sequence is (2,3,5)->l[i] + (9)->r[i] + 1. so you take maximum of all this and you get the ans.

    Now , how to calculate l[i] and r[i] ? you see , you iterate through 1 to n , now for each i , if A[i] > A[i-1] , we can increase the sequence, so A[i] = A[i-1]+1. else we start a new sequence and A[i] = 1. similar for r[i] but iterate from n to 1. Hope it clears.

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      Thank you. It's clear right now. I used the similar idea in my solution but I used one iteration through 1 to n.

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Can someone please explain DIV2-D DZY loves modification? The editorial is so short and brief I can't find a clue what's going on.

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    We can consider the rows and columns separated. It's easy to get the largest value of choosing k rows and the largest value of choosing k columns. Then consider if we choose a row after choosing a columns. The answer should be subtract by a * p. Then for a operation sequence of choosing rows for i times and columns for k - i times. If we swap two operations, the total number which should be subtract doesn't change. So we can calculate the total number should be subtract is i * (k - i) * p. So we can enumerate i and solve this problem.

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Test cases for Div1B/Div2D are weak.

Solution 7093794 uses int instead of long long for row/column sums (in order to fit into TL with O(k * (n + m))).

For test

1000 1 987900 100
0
0
...
0
0

it gives answer 8418438592 because of overflow. It is clearly wrong, because every operation on such array will give <=0 additional happines (and correct answer for this test is -48747930000).

upd. problem statement says ar[i][j]>0, my first example is not valid. We may change matrix of 0's to matrix of 1's, and for this test we'll have 9406338592 instead of -48746942100.

upd2. i've read some random solutions from contest. gchebanov, flashmt have this bug (and most probably few others).

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    I'm sorry for our mistake. T^T

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    I wonder why there is no rejudge? It's not an ACM contest, so it didn't actually change anything for these guys.

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D: Am I tight that if all (except the first one) rooms are with traps than solution works in just O(n^3 log k)? My O(n^3 log k) was too slow:(

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Hey. I misunderstood condition second task decided to try the greedy algorithm tried passed. I have a question for the problem in Example abc 3 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 if the answer to take letters, could receive only «abcbbc»??? or could even «abcbbb»? thanks for the earlier

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    In this case both strings are valid. Note that wb = wc = 2.

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      This code is 100% correct?

      include

      include

      include

      include

      include

      include

      include

      include

      include <memory.h>

      using namespace std;

      long long hash, ans, a[3010];

      int main() { //freopen("input.txt", "r", stdin); long long p, k, i; string s; getline(cin, s); cin >> k; long long mx = -1; for(i = 1; i <= 26; i++){ cin >> a[i]; mx = max(mx, a[i]); } for(i = 1; i <= s.size(); i++) ans += a[s[i — 1] — 'a' + 1] * i; for(i = s.size() + 1; i <= s.size() + k; i++) ans += mx * i; cout << ans; return 0; }

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    You know, resizing is possible if you put the image in html tags.

    But these formulas are worthy even of nope.avi

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    I haven't read that, but I will probably enjoy that problem, but sometimes I wonder why they put such tasks in contest which lasts 2 hours. It is clearly wasting interesting problem, because nobody will be even close to solving it :(.

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    hahaha) that's my reaction)

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    Surprisingly enough, the solution is very easy to code. Maybe one could derive these formulas in an hour or two, but there is no way one could have that much time left after solving the 4 previous problems.

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Welcome to China.

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3 years ago, # |
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Fortunately, we find that 3830080162 = 5(mod109 + 9)

How did we find this number ?

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Firstly:

    1) Wolframalpha

    or

    2) Bruteforce (note that program finding that number doesn't have to output answer in 2s).

    Secondly:

    Hardcode

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3 years ago, # |
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Why do we need this observation for Fibonacci problem? i simply precomputed first 300 000 Fibonacci numbers in an array.

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    In order to reduce the problem to a sum of geometric series, as apparently it makes it easier to solve. My solution doesn't use that either, here's roughly what I did:

    • We need to be able to find the sum Sk = A1... Ak (the answer to the second query is Sr - Sl - 1)

    • First, we precompute partial sums for the initial array at the beginning

    • Then, we need to include the Fibonacci segments that fully lie within range (1, k) — this is done with a simple segment tree once we have precomputed FSk = F1... Fk

    • Now, we need to include segments that partially lie within our range. For this, we extend the segments to the left until the beginning of our array (Fibonacci sequence can be extended to the left using Fk - 1 = Fk + 1 - Fk), and use two segment trees to find the sum of the elements that appear at the first and second positions in our array. Since Fibonacci sequences are additive (assuming Fa, b is a sequence that begins with a, b, we have Fa, b + Fc, d = Fa + c, b + d), we now need to find the sum of the first k elements of a sequence beginning with those two numbers, which can be done by precomputing coefficients for the first two elements. Don't forget to subtract the sum of the negative Fibonacci elements from the resulting sequence (these values can be included in the first interval tree).

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      But when we have fixed size static values we don't need this optimization. I used an array with the prefix sums of the Fibonacci numbers up to 300010 and I can find the sum of any interval in constant time.

      I did not finish my problem because I spend too long trying to challenge, but I believe it should work. I used bucketing in 548 buckets of size 548. Each query would only perform in the order of 548 operations which should be fast enough I think,

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        3 years ago, # ^ |
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        As I said, it is definitely possible to solve the problem directly, its just a different solution from the one mentioned in the editorial.

        I'm not sure what you do with buckets — for buckets fully covered by the "add" query, I suppose you simply maintain the first two elements, and for end buckets you add the values directly to the original array?

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          3 years ago, # ^ |
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          Exactly.

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            3 years ago, # ^ |
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            I just tried writing a solution with buckets, I'm getting TLE on the maximum test (300000 N/M and all queries span almost the entire array takes about 5-6 seconds). My submission is 7103071, I don't see how it can be improved without using interval trees.

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              3 years ago, # ^ |
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              Nice :-) My draft was way longer. 5-6 seconds it's motivating because it seems it can be optimized enough. I would try to avoid ',' operator.

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                3 years ago, # ^ |
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                Its great for squeezing several small operations inside an if/for without using {}, which sometimes makes it more readable (though with the way I used it here it probably doesn't really help with readability). Problem is, the small optimizations like not using division inside the loop are probably done by the compiler anyway. Changing BUCKET to 512 should auto-optimize the modulo with & but it doesn't make it much faster.

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              3 years ago, # ^ |
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              You may try some other solution with working time.

              Lets divide queries by blocks of size (or even for a little bit faster solution). Then for every update query you just remember "i'll have to do that update later", and for sum query you first take old value of partial sums, and then for every update that you still have to do — intersect it with your sum query range and add required fibonacci partial sum to your answer. At the end of every block just do all updates that you need in O(N) (moving from left to right over your array) and update partial sums.

              This solution works 2-3 seconds and passes TL without any problems. Here is mine: 7087032

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3 years ago, # |
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It's really a hard round.(a math round again?) congratulations to the winners and thanks to DZY!

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3 years ago, # |
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i didn't understand in problem C — div2, can someone elaborate more? thanks.

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It seems that tests for Div1 D are weak, for test

5 4 2
0 0 1 0 1
1 2
2 3
2 4
4 5

this AC solution 7089186 gives 0.5 which is wrong. Other AC solutions, for example this 7086133, gives 0.3333333.

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3 years ago, # |
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Could somebody explain more clearly the author's solution for Div1B?

I had the following idea: Store the sums for rows and columns in two heaps. Every time I choose a row, that row's sum will decrease by n * p and every column's sum will decrease by p.

For each of the k steps I choose the maximum from the heaps. Suppose the maximum value is a column. I add its value to the answer, update it, and substract p from every line. The substraction from every line is done in O(1) using an auxiliary variable (substract_row in my code).

I get WA on test 4. My code is here: http://codeforces.com/contest/447/submission/7102900.

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Your solution is greedy — it is not optimal to always choose the row/column with the largest sum.

    The correct solution splits the problem into two parts. First, we try to solve it for different values of K using only rows, then only columns (both can be done greedily, like you suggested), and save the results.

    Then we choose all values of R from 0 to K and try to combine the solutions that use R rows and K - R columns. The key observation is that the relative order of rows and columns doesn't matter — in any case, for each row-column pair whichever comes first will reduce the result of the other one by exactly p, so the answer will be AnsRow[R] + AnsCol[K-R] + R * (K - R) * p.

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    It is OK to take X best row moves and Y best column moves using greedy approach, if you have fixed X and Y. But for given K greedy approach may give not the best partition of K into X and Y. Here is counterexample:

    4 4 3 1
    5 5 5 1
    5 5 5 1
    5 5 5 1
    0 0 2 0
    

    Author's solution calculates 1, 2, 3,... k best moves on rows/columns, and then try all possibilities: do only k row moves, do k-1 row moves and 1 column move, do k-2 row moves and 2 column moves and so on.

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Thank you both! The test case explained very well what I was doing wrong. I finally got accepted. :)

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3 years ago, # |
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Who can give a give a more descriptive explanation of DIV1 C DXY AND SEQUENCES, the editorial it not clear to me pls.

email: arthurugochukwu@gmail.com

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3 years ago, # |
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Just thought I'd mention, it seems you forgot to multiply the character weight by the character position in the string in the explanation for Div2.B.

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may someone make a detailed explanation of the solution for problem Div1 D?

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    First, we need to reduce the graph. For each room A and a trap room B calculate the chance that the next trap room after A will be B. For a given B, we can make a list of equations for those values and solve them via Gauss elimination. For example, in the example case, let's find the probability that the room #3 will be next. P3(1) = P3(2), since there is nowhere else to go from room 1, and neither of those rooms are trapped. P3(2) = 2 / 3P3(1) + 1 / 3, because we can either go back to room 1 or forward to room 3. P3(3) = 1 / 2P3(2) + 1 / 2P3(4). P3(4) = 1 / 2. P3(5) = P3(4).

    Once we have calculated these values, we can construct a new graph that contains only the first room and all trap rooms, and use the computed probabilities as the edges in the new graph. Now we need to calculate the chance that we will end up in room N after K-1 moves. This can be done with matrix multiplication: let V be a vector such that Vi is the probability that we are currently in room i, and let P be the matrix of probabilities we computed previously. Then, P·V is a vector of new probabilities after one step. Which means that to find the answer, we need to calculate Pk - 1·V. Raising a matrix to power of k can be done in , where T is the number of trap rooms, which is not higher than 100 (plus one).

    The last complication is that Gauss elimination is O(N3), and we need to run it up to 100 times, which is too slow. This is solved by noticing that the matrix on the left hand side is always the same, and only the right hand side values change. So we can use Gauss elimination once to find the inverse of that matrix, and then use it to find the probabilities for every right hand side vector in O(N2).

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      Hah, in course on Computational Math at my university I was taught that finding inverses of matrices is a crime on numerical correctness :P. What Gauss elimination gives us is a PLU = A representation of matrix A, where P is a matrix of permutation, L is a down-triangle matrix and U is an upper-triangle matrix. Then, when we want to solve equation Ax=b with fixed A and given b, we can do it by solving consecutively Pc = b, Ld = c, Ux = d :P. However I will be curious if there was ever a case such that finding inverse got bad numerical properties and such solution was demanded to fit answer into wanted precision :P.

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        3 years ago, # ^ |
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        It is probably not the best idea to find the inverse of a real-valued matrix but it seems to work in this case. You suggest not finding the full inverse, but instead leaving it at LU decomposition in order to improve precision?

        I wonder if its possible to make a test that would really force some significant precision loss out of this.

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          3 years ago, # ^ |
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          My lecturer suggests (or even insists :P) not finding inverses and so I am, but I guess that for contest's purposes finding inverse will be sufficient in >=95% of cases, so profits resulting from that PLU factorization are probably too small to give a %&*^ about this :P.

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            3 years ago, # ^ |
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            Interesting.. I made a test with N=5, M=10^5, K=10^9, only the last room is trapped, and all edges are chosen randomly, and every accepted solution I tried printed something like 0.9992 (the correct answer is obviously 1).

            Weak tests eh?

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            3 years ago, # ^ |
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            You don't really need to find the inverse, you can simply do GEM with a matrix as the right side of the augmented matrix (instead of just a vector).

            I don't see how inverses could be so imprecise, though, since they can also be found using GEM.

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              3 years ago, # ^ |
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              "Because computing inverse is not numerically correct"

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                3 years ago, # ^ |
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                It does what we want just as well as GEM does, since we can compute inverses using GEM. How is that not numerically correct?

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                  3 years ago, # ^ |
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                  Is the inverse the probability from w to v? If is so,why is it?

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      what's the right hand side vector?

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I need help with 446B. Here's my code: 7118091

My approach is the following.

  • Input and summing all rows and columns
  • Inserting all rows in one and all columns in other priority_queue
  • For each step (K), check what row or column can give me the most value
  • Pop the maximum row or column, reduce it's value by P * number of elements in row/column, push it back
  • If I pick a row, I reduce the value of all columns for P and vice versa (I have two variables — rowreduction and columnreduction tracking this, I don't actually pop and push all rows/columns).

I get WA on the 4th test, it's too big for me to analyse it (I can't even get access to the full example), nor I can get access to the full test data. Would this approach satisfy the time limits, and where is my mistake?

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    LeBron explains why this approach does not give the optimal result some comments above yours. Also, he posted a small counterexample.

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3 years ago, # |
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Can anyone please elaborate the reasoning behind the solution of DIV2 DZY Loves Sequences. The solution works but I don't understand why?

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I have a problem in 446A — DZY Loves Sequences. I have found a tricky test data: 7, 1000000000,1 . According to the description, the segment sequence must be strictly increasing and thus we cannot change any number(1000000000 or 1). Thus the answer is 2. But I test my AC code and some other users' code, the output is 3. My submission ID is 7422755

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    3 years ago, # ^ |
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    Why we cant change 1 to 1000000001 ? In description we can change to any integer we want, not neccessarily <= 10^9 (although the constraint of input is between 1 and 10^9). Am i wrong?

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      3 years ago, # ^ |
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      Thanks, I did not look into the description carefully and I've got wrong idea.

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In problem D, I don't know why you said "So we can solve the problem in O(n^4+a^3log(k)). we should optimize this algorithm." I think the complexity is already O(n^3+a^3log(k)).

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3 years ago, # |
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DIV 2C(DZY Loves Sequences): should not output of test case 30: 1 2 42 3 4 be 3 instead of 4?

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In div 2 d/div 1 b why first to choose i row and then k-i columns. Why not to choose appropriately from row sum or column sum at each time depending on which is maximum?

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2 years ago, # |
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I tried to solve 446C - DZY Loves Fibonacci Numbers using sqrt-decomposition technique but got TLE on case 10. Does anbody solved it using this technique ? Or is it solvable using this technique ?

here is my submission 12033435 .

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Well, the presenter of these problems is just an eighteen-year old boy from China, hasn't gone to university yet. I know him and I am speechless. TAT -_-|| TAT I can just explain that, the one who almost participates in IOI, but finally dropped out from China Team, has a really really really deep hatred for the world. We are just the victim.

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2 years ago, # |
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Question about problem Div 2-E

can i solve it with segment tree and lazy propagation ?

if so ... how is the lazy propagation implemented here ??

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    20 months ago, # ^ |
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    yes you can, using general Fibonacii sequences starting with a,b as mention in this comment

    and this is my implementation 17332378