golions's blog

By golions, history, 7 weeks ago, In English,

I'm just curious about how speakers of other languages express CP terms. You can also share the literal translation if you think it's interesting — does your language's word for a tree (connected undirected acyclic graph) the same as the word the plant with leaves and a wood trunk? Share whatever you want, such as the pronunciation or word in the script of your language. If you say basic CP terms exactly the same as in English, share that because I find that pretty interesting. You can share any number of terms or algorithms, such as: Competitive Programming

code

array

Java

C++

graph

tree

node/vertex

edge

Dynamic Programming

DFS/BFS

integer

long

variable

test case

sample case

queue

stack

for/while loop

if statement

...

The more words the better, the more languages the better!

Edit 1: some more words —

Algorithm

Data Structure

Segment Tree

Contest

Input/Output

Binary

Hexadecimal

Memory

Time Limit Exceeded

Wrong Answer

String

True/False

Edit 2: Any CP slang or words that don't have a direct English translation?

 
 
 
 
  • Vote: I like it
  • +69
  • Vote: I do not like it

»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +46 Vote: I do not like it

Lockdown across the world is really making people curious.

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +4 Vote: I do not like it

    Yup, I'm stuck at home until at least mid June. Also I think languages are cool.

»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +44 Vote: I do not like it

The terms we use in the Turkish language are:

  • Competitive Programming = Rekabetçi Programlama
  • Code = Kod
  • Array = Dizi
  • Java = Java
  • C++ = C++
  • Graph = Graf/Grafik
  • Tree = Ağaç
  • Node/Vertex = Düğüm/Boğum
  • Edge = Kenar
  • Dynamic Programming = Dinamik Programlama
  • DFS/BFS = DFS/BFS
  • Integer = Tamsayı
  • Long = Uzun
  • Variable = Değişken
  • Test Case = Test Case
  • Sample Case = Örnek Case
  • Queue = Sıra/Kuyruk
  • Stack = Yığın
  • For/While loop = For/While Döngüsü
  • If Statement = If İfadesi

  • Algorithm = Algoritma
  • Data Structure = Veri Yapısı
  • Contest = Yarışma
  • Input/Output = Girdi/Çıktı
  • Sorting Algorithm = Sıralama Algoritması
  • Search Algorithm = Arama Algoritması
  • Binary Number System = Ikilik Sayı Sistemi
  • Hexadecimal Number System = Onaltılık Sayı Sistemi
  • Memory = Bellek/Hafıza
  • Time Limit = Zaman Sınırı/Süre Sınırı
  • Rating = Derece
  • String = String
  • True/False = Doğru/Yanlış
  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it 0 Vote: I do not like it

    Thanks! It's interesting to see which words look similar to English.

»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +41 Vote: I do not like it

In Finnish:

  • competitive programming = kisakoodaus
  • code = koodi
  • array = taulukko
  • Java = Java
  • C++ = C++
  • graph = verkko
  • tree = puu
  • node/vertex = solmu
  • edge = kaari
  • dynamic programming = dynaaminen ohjelmointi
  • DFS/BFS = syvyyshaku/leveyshaku
  • integer = kokonaisluku
  • long = long
  • variable = muuttuja
  • test case = testitapaus
  • sample case = esimerkkitapaus
  • queue = jono
  • stack = pino
  • for/while loop = for/while-silmukka
  • if statement = if-lause
  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +14 Vote: I do not like it

    If I remember correctly, you should know how "segment tree" is in Polish, right :D?

    • »
      »
      »
      7 weeks ago, # ^ |
        Vote: I like it +24 Vote: I do not like it

      Yes, I knew it in 2015, unfortunately not anymore :)

      By the way, some senior competitive programmers in Finland have used the word "puolapuu" (meaning "Polish tree") for "segment tree" because we first learned it from some Polish contestants in the early days.

»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +109 Vote: I do not like it

One thing I find funny about Russian CP terms is that we have many names for "treap".

The most commonly used is "cartesian tree/dekartovo derevo/декартово дерево" or shortened version "dekartach/декартач" or just "dd/дд".

However, there are a lot more of them. Most commonly used alternative term is formed in the same way as English "treap" (TRee + hEAP) — "deramida/дерамида" (DERevo (tree, дерево) + pirAMIDA (heap, куча)). In the same way you can form two other names, although they are usually used only in jokes: "pivo/пиво" (PIramida + dereVO) and "kurevo/курево" (KUcha (also heap, куча) + deREVO). Funny thing is that these words in usual Russian stand for "beer" and "weed/tobacco" accordingly.

This year in NEERC we had a problem named "Bad treap" — notice the wordplay with "bad trip". Jury members were very proud of themselves when they invented this wordplay, but soon they found out that it's quite well known and can even be translated to Russian as "plohoe (bad) kurevo/плохое курево" which means "bad weed" :D

»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it -28 Vote: I do not like it
The comment removed because of Codeforces rules violation
»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +63 Vote: I do not like it

code — kod

array — tablica

graph — graf

tree — drzewo

node/vertex — wierzchołek

edge — krawędź

Dynamic Programming — programowanie dynamiczne

DFS/BFS — przeszukiwanie w głąb/wszersz

integer — liczba całkowita

variable — zmienna

test case — przypadek testowy

sample case — przykład

queue — kolejka

stack — stos

loop — pętla

segment tree — drzewo przedziałowe

incorrect submission — bomba (it's funny this is called bomb in Polish only)

simulated annealing — symulowane wyżarzanie

yo mama — twoja stara

and fasten your seat belts now ...

counterexample — kontrprzykład (if I'm not mistaken this is an only word in Polish with >=6 consecutive consonants)

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +35 Vote: I do not like it

    I've seen a couple of those in Radewoosh code's.

    • »
      »
      »
      7 weeks ago, # ^ |
        Vote: I like it +27 Vote: I do not like it

      Downsides of having Slavic language but Latin script instead of Cyrillic... You're more likely to want to spam your code with your native language (because you're Slavic) and less likely to be ashamed of it because you can do it without transliteration from Cyrillic script.

      • »
        »
        »
        »
        7 weeks ago, # ^ |
          Vote: I like it +22 Vote: I do not like it

        Surely, Russian schoolboys never name their variables mas and kolvo.

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +31 Vote: I do not like it

    We in Russia call incorrect submission a log (log for timber, not log for logarithm) (spells "бревно"). I actually don't know why, but have some guesses

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +18 Vote: I do not like it

    "kontrprzykład" to "kontrprzykład" ochrzczony (baptized)

»
7 weeks ago, # |
Rev. 2   Vote: I like it +1 Vote: I do not like it

We (in Serbian) use the same word for string and thread in common language- nit, so in cs textbooks term used for string is "niska". Interesting thing is, I've never heard of anyone using that word for string or for anything else (excluding homonyms) outside textbooks.

»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +35 Vote: I do not like it

Some from Vietnamese:

  • binary search : chặt nhị phân
  • brute force : trâu
  • combinatorics : tổ hợp
  • data structure : cấu trúc dữ liệu
  • dp : quy hoạch động
  • divide and conquer : chia để trị
  • flows : luồng
  • geometry : hình
  • strings : xâu
  • sort : sắp xếp
  • graph : đồ thị
  • tree : cây
»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +30 Vote: I do not like it

One interesting thing about Croatian CP terms is that we call segment tree „tournament“. It's not even a Croatian word, so when I first heard it, I thought we just took it from English and that everybody calls it that way, but it seems that we're the only ones. :)

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +10 Vote: I do not like it

    That kinda makes sense cause it resembles playoff brackets, but it is unfortunate that word "tournament" in math is actually already reserved for round-robin tournaments with arbitrary outcomes :p (everybody plays with everybody)

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +3 Vote: I do not like it

    There is also a term called tournament tree which is used to denote knockout tournaments (where in every match the team which loses gets knocked out of the competition). This tree is essentially like a binary heap.

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +23 Vote: I do not like it

    Also "logaritamska" for Fenwick tree, and "konstantna" for sparse table.

    Why exactly those data structures are named after their query complexity classes is beyond me.

»
7 weeks ago, # |
Rev. 5   Vote: I like it +50 Vote: I do not like it

Hey, I'm Russian.

For your convenience, I hid everything here
  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +17 Vote: I do not like it

    Thanks! Your examples of Russian slang are especially interesting!

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +47 Vote: I do not like it

    As a wise cranky old man I want to mention that kukarek is widely used in students competitions also, while glina (as I can understand) appeared 2-3 years ago in some camp for schoolboys and used almost exclusively by people not older than 20. I, personally, do not understand why it is popular.

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it 0 Vote: I do not like it

    How about such term of russian slang as kostyl'?

»
7 weeks ago, # |
Rev. 2   Vote: I like it +24 Vote: I do not like it

In spanish, at least most of cuban people I know:

code: código

array: arreglo

Java: just as in English

C++: just as in English

graph: grafo

tree: árbol (same name as the plant with leaves and a wood trunk)

node/vertex: nodo/vértice

edge: arista

Dynamic Programming: Programación Dinámica

DFS/BFS: DFS/BFS

integer: entero

long: just as in english

variable: variable(it has a different pronunciation)

test case: caso de prueba

sample case: caso de ejemplo

queue: cola

stack: pila

for/while loop: ciclo for/while

if statement: sentencia if

Algorithm: algoritmo

Data Structure: estructura de datos

Segment Tree: it translates to "árbol de segmentos", but we we use the English name

Contest: competencia, but some of us use the English word

Input/Output: entrada/salida

Binary: binario

Hexadecimal: Hexadecimal

Memory: Memoria

Time Limit Exceeded: Tiempo límite excedido

Wrong Answer: respuesta incorrecta. But usually we says it as in English

String: just as in english

True/False: verdadero/falso

»
7 weeks ago, # |
Rev. 2   Vote: I like it 0 Vote: I do not like it

In India it's the same as English terms,although you can find translations of the terms in regional languages, what is used is English terms only.

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +9 Vote: I do not like it

    Hindi and English are India's official languages, and India doesn't have a national language.

    • »
      »
      »
      7 weeks ago, # ^ |
        Vote: I like it 0 Vote: I do not like it

      My mistake..my point was I haven't seen any other language terms being used instead of the english ones in India.

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +29 Vote: I do not like it

    Well we have something in India.
    We call "convolutional recursive sequence generation using divide and conquer" (an elaborate name by tfg) as "online FFT".
    Its a bit popular name for this trick because it first appeared here and he called it online FFT https://tanujkhattar.wordpress.com/2018/01/03/online-fft/
    Thats the only CP related relevant article on google when you search "Online FFT".
    Nobody outside India use term "Online FFT".

    • »
      »
      »
      7 weeks ago, # ^ |
        Vote: I like it +16 Vote: I do not like it

      I am not sure why, but name "online FFT" is familiar to me and I surely used it already (does it mean I am Indian at heart?)

      • »
        »
        »
        »
        7 weeks ago, # ^ |
          Vote: I like it +27 Vote: I do not like it

        Yes. If you consider yourself an Indian at heart then you are Indian at heart. We welcome people with open arms. So I wont deny it.

        I used that term quite a few times in discord server. I didnt found anyone there familiar with this term. Notabaly tfg, adamant and pajenegod conceptually knew what it is but "online FFT" was the term they heard for the first time.

»
7 weeks ago, # |
Rev. 2   Vote: I like it +12 Vote: I do not like it

We Egyptians almost always use English terms, so I'll just share their Arabic translation:

Keep in mind that Arabic goes from right to left!

code: كود, same pronunciation

array: مصفوفة mus-fofa

Java: same

C++: same

graph: رسم rasm, also means a drawing

tree: شجرة Shajara

node/vertex: نقطة noq-ta || عقدة Ook-da, first means dot and second means knot

edge: وصلة wasla

Dynamic Programming: same

DFS/BFS: same but we have a similar word دفس dafs which means burying or hiding something between other stuff, usually in a cramped place

integer: رقم raqm

long: رقم كبير raqm kabeer, literally big number

variable: متغير motaghay-yer

test case: اختبار ekh-tebar

sample case: مثال me-thal

queue: طابور taboor

stack: كومة Koma, it doesn't indicate an order

for/while loop: same

if statement: جملة شرطية jomla shar-tia

Algorithm: خوارزمية Khawarzmia

Data Structure: هيكل بيانات Hai-kal Bayanat

Segment Tree: same

Contest: مسابقة mosabaqa

Input/Output: دخل/خرج Dakhl/Kharg

Binary: ثنائي Thona-ey

Hexadecimal: سداسي عشر Sodasi Ashr

Memory: ذاكرة Zakera

Time Limit Exceeded: تجاوز الوقت, Tajawaz Al-Whaqt

Wrong Answer: اجابة خاطئة, Egaba Khatea'a

String: نص, nus, it's written the same way as the word for half in Egypt but different pronunciation: nos

True/False: صح/خطأ Sah/Khata'

»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +39 Vote: I do not like it

In Indonesia, usually, only the English terms are used.

But here I list some of the Bahasa Indonesia terms that I know.
Slang
»
7 weeks ago, # |
Rev. 8   Vote: I like it +13 Vote: I do not like it

In Vietnamese we can express almost but for some key word, we still use English for short or just prefer it.

Here a list
»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +26 Vote: I do not like it

Chinese here!

Those without lit. following are straight translations

code 代码 lit.substitude for machine-readable stuff

array 数组 lit.number group

graph 图 lit.picture

tree 树 lit. a plant with trunks and leaves

node/vertex 点 lit.point

edge 边 lit.sides

Dynamic Programming 动态规划 lit.dynamic planning

DFS/BFS 深/广度优先搜索

integer 整数 lit.whole number

long 长整 lit.long whole number

variable 变量 lit.mutable value

test case 测试点 lit.testing point

sample case 样例数据

queue 队列

stack 栈 lit.a place you put horses in (???)

for/while loop for/while 循环

if statement if 语句

Algorithm 算法 lit.The way you calculate

Data Structure 数据结构 lit.The way you store data

Segment Tree 线段树

Contest 比赛

Input/Output 输入/输出

Binary 二进制 lit.using a new digit after reaching 2

Hexadecimal 十六进制

Memory 内存 lit.internal storage

Time Limit Exceeded 超时

Wrong Answer 答案错误

String 字符串 lit.a sequence of characters

True/False 真/假

Slangs

骗分 lit.cheat score: Use incorrect or slow algorithms to try to get score

卡常 lit.??? : Try to lower the constant value of time complexity in order to just fit in the time constraints.

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +15 Vote: I do not like it

    谢谢 ! I actually speak Chinese but I didn't know any of these because I never talk about CP in Chinese, so these were super interesting. Thanks for the literal translations!

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +12 Vote: I do not like it

    What's the correspond translation in English of 莫队算法?

»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +25 Vote: I do not like it

Which languages translate "eertree"?

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +24 Vote: I do not like it

    Russian :) (well, it's fair since it was invented by a Russian).

    We call it "овердрево" (overdr[e]vo), literally "over-tree", albeit with an old-fashioned spelling of "дерево" (d[e]revo), and this word is also a palindrome!

    • »
      »
      »
      7 weeks ago, # ^ |
        Vote: I like it +45 Vote: I do not like it

      My friends use a neutral "дерево палиндромов" (palindrome tree). Овердрево sounds cool and epic, but a little bit weird for me to use it in my speech

»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +14 Vote: I do not like it
Hungarian
»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +23 Vote: I do not like it

Hi there, I'm French :)

  • array : tableau
  • graph : graphe
  • tree : arbre
  • node/vertex : sommet
  • edge : arête
  • Dynamic Programming : Programmation Dynamique
  • DFS/BFS : Parcours en Profondeur, Parcours en Largeur
  • integer : nombre entier
  • float : nombre flottant
  • queue : file
  • stack : pile, tas
  • Data Structure : Structure de Données

  • Contest : Compétition
  • Standings : classement
  • Input/Output : Flux d'entrée, flux de sortie
  • Binary : Binaire
  • Memory : mémoire
  • Time Limit Exceeded : temps écoulé
  • Wrong Answer : Mauvaise réponse
  • String : chaîne de caractères
  • True/False : Vrai/Faux
  • Loop : boucle
  • When making a recurence, we express stop case by "cas d'arrêt"

  • Connected graph : graphe connexe
  • Component of a graph : composante connexe
  • Directed graph : graphe orienté
  • Neighbor : Voisin
  • Path : Chemin
  • Matrix : Matrice
  • Induction : récurrence
  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +13 Vote: I do not like it

    Thanks!! I was actually hoping to get a response for French!

»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +32 Vote: I do not like it

In Romanian:

  • code = cod
  • array = șir
  • Java = Java
  • C++ = C++
  • graph = graf
  • tree = arbore
  • node/vertex = nod
  • edge = muchie
  • Dynamic Programming = Programare Dinamică
  • DFS/BFS = Căutare în adâncime/lățime
  • integer = număr întreg
  • long = long
  • variable = variabilă
  • test case = test
  • sample case = exemplu
  • queue = coadă
  • stack = stivă
  • for = pentru
  • while = cât timp
  • if = dacă
  • algorithm = algoritm
  • data structure = structură de date
  • Segment Tree = Arbore de Intervale
  • Contest = Concurs
  • Input/Output = Date de intrare/ieșire
  • Binary = Binar
  • Hexadecimal = Hexadecimal
  • Memory = Memorie
  • Time Limit Exceeded = Limită de Memorie depășită
  • Wrong Answer = Răspuns Greșit
  • String = String
  • True/False = Adevărat/Fals
»
7 weeks ago, # |
Rev. 2   Vote: I like it +49 Vote: I do not like it

If it's interesting in Armenian there are few terms that have the same pronunciation:

  • code — կոդ — kod
  • graph — գրաֆ — graf
  • algorithm — ալգորիթմ — algoritm

There are more differences:

  • array — զանգված — zangvats
  • tree — ծառ — tsar (plant)
  • node — հանգույց — hanguyts
  • vertex — գագաթ — gagat
  • edge — կող — kogh
  • Dynamic Programming — Դինամիկ Ծրագրավորում — Dinamik Tsragravorum
  • Integer — ամբողջ — amboghch
  • variable — փոփոխական — popokhakan
  • queue — հերթ — hert
  • stack — պահունակ — pahunak
  • loop — ցիկլ — tsikl
  • Data Structure — Տվյալների Կառուցվածք — Tvyalneri Karutsvatsk
  • Binary — Երկուական — erkuakan
  • Hexadecimal — Տասնվեցական — tasnvetsakan
  • Memory — Հիշողություն — hishoghutyun
  • Time Limit — Ժամանակի Սահմանափակում — Zhamanaki sahmanapakum
  • String — տող — togh
  • True/False — Ճիշտ/Կեղծ — Chisht/Keghts
»
7 weeks ago, # |
Rev. 2   Vote: I like it +14 Vote: I do not like it

In Croatian:

code — kod

array — niz

graph — graf

tree — stablo

node/vertex — čvor/vrh

edge — brid

DFS — dubinsko pretraživanje (not really used)

Dynamic Programming — dinamičko programiranje

variable — varijabla

test case — službeni primjer

sample case — primjer iz zadatka

queue — red (not really used)

stack — stog (not really used)

for/while loop — for/while ciklus

treap — strpa (STAblo + hrPA) — (not popular yet!!)

segement tree — tournament / turnirsko stablo (really weird but used)

fenwick tree — logaritamska (literally means logarithmic)

palindromic/eer tree — olbat stablo

»
7 weeks ago, # |
Rev. 2   Vote: I like it 0 Vote: I do not like it

I know that Chinese has already been taken, but since I'm from Taiwan and the others seem to be from China, we use a slightly different terminology (and typography), so I'll give our words from across the strait:

code — 程式碼/扣(transliteration of English, "code")

array — 陣列

graph — 圖

tree — 樹

node/vertex — 點/節點

edge — 邊

Dynamic Programming — 動態規劃/DP

DFS/BFS — DFS/BFS are commonly used, but 深度優先搜尋/廣度優先搜尋 are their formal Chinese names

integer — 整數

long — 長

variable — 變數

test case — 測資

sample case — 範例測資 or 範測for short

queue — 佇列

stack — 堆積

for/while loop — for/while 迴圈

if statement — 若判斷式(but we just say 'if', the Chinese is rather a mouthful!)

Algorithm — 演算法

Data Structure — 資料結構

Segment Tree — 線段樹

Contest — 比賽/競賽

Input/Output — 輸入/輸出

Binary — 二進位

Hexadecimal — 十六進位

Memory — 記憶體

Time Limit Exceeded — TLE/超過時限

Wrong Answer — WA/答案錯誤

String — 字串

True/False — 真/偽 or 真/假

Sorting Algorithm — 排序演算法

And some slang that I find rather funny:

電神(Lit. Electric God): Used to refer to someone really good at CP (= orz)

毒瘤(Lit. Tumor) Really, really advanced techniques or using something really advanced to solve a problem that is not needed (ex. LCT for a simple tree DP)

裝弱(Lit. Pretending to be weak)Saying that you're horrible at CP, programming, etc. when you're a 電神

  • »
    »
    7 weeks ago, # ^ |
      Vote: I like it +5 Vote: I do not like it

    Thanks for sharing! It's cool to see the differences between this and mainland Chinese and different slang!

»
7 weeks ago, # |
  Vote: I like it +3 Vote: I do not like it
In Italian: