As an experiment the Educational Codeforces Round 33 will be rated for Div. 2. ×

C. Polo the Penguin and XOR operation
time limit per test
2 seconds
memory limit per test
256 megabytes
standard input
standard output

Little penguin Polo likes permutations. But most of all he likes permutations of integers from 0 to n, inclusive.

For permutation p = p0, p1, ..., pn, Polo has defined its beauty — number .

Expression means applying the operation of bitwise excluding "OR" to numbers x and y. This operation exists in all modern programming languages, for example, in language C++ and Java it is represented as "^" and in Pascal — as "xor".

Help him find among all permutations of integers from 0 to n the permutation with the maximum beauty.


The single line contains a positive integer n (1 ≤ n ≤ 106).


In the first line print integer m the maximum possible beauty. In the second line print any permutation of integers from 0 to n with the beauty equal to m.

If there are several suitable permutations, you are allowed to print any of them.

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