Virtual contest is a way to take part in past contest, as close as possible to participation on time. It is supported only ACM-ICPC mode for virtual contests.
If you've seen these problems, a virtual contest is not for you - solve these problems in the archive.
If you just want to solve some problem from a contest, a virtual contest is not for you - solve this problem in the archive.
Never use someone else's code, read the tutorials or communicate with other person during a virtual contest.

No tag edit access

A. Find Amir

time limit per test

1 secondmemory limit per test

256 megabytesinput

standard inputoutput

standard outputA few years ago Sajjad left his school and register to another one due to security reasons. Now he wishes to find Amir, one of his schoolmates and good friends.

There are *n* schools numerated from 1 to *n*. One can travel between each pair of them, to do so, he needs to buy a ticket. The ticker between schools *i* and *j* costs and can be used multiple times. Help Sajjad to find the minimum cost he needs to pay for tickets to visit all schools. He can start and finish in any school.

Input

The first line contains a single integer *n* (1 ≤ *n* ≤ 10^{5}) — the number of schools.

Output

Print single integer: the minimum cost of tickets needed to visit all schools.

Examples

Input

2

Output

0

Input

10

Output

4

Note

In the first example we can buy a ticket between the schools that costs .

Codeforces (c) Copyright 2010-2018 Mike Mirzayanov

The only programming contests Web 2.0 platform

Server time: Sep/26/2018 16:44:33 (f2).

Desktop version, switch to mobile version.

User lists

Name |
---|