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E. Mahmoud and Ehab and the xor-MST
time limit per test
2 seconds
memory limit per test
256 megabytes
input
standard input
output
standard output

Ehab is interested in the bitwise-xor operation and the special graphs. Mahmoud gave him a problem that combines both. He has a complete graph consisting of n vertices numbered from 0 to n - 1. For all 0 ≤ u < v < n, vertex u and vertex v are connected with an undirected edge that has weight (where is the bitwise-xor operation). Can you find the weight of the minimum spanning tree of that graph?

You can read about complete graphs in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complete_graph

You can read about the minimum spanning tree in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimum_spanning_tree

The weight of the minimum spanning tree is the sum of the weights on the edges included in it.

Input

The only line contains an integer n (2 ≤ n ≤ 1012), the number of vertices in the graph.

Output

The only line contains an integer x, the weight of the graph's minimum spanning tree.

Example
Input
4
Output
4
Note

In the first sample: The weight of the minimum spanning tree is 1+2+1=4.