Virtual contest is a way to take part in past contest, as close as possible to participation on time. It is supported only ICPC mode for virtual contests.
If you've seen these problems, a virtual contest is not for you - solve these problems in the archive.
If you just want to solve some problem from a contest, a virtual contest is not for you - solve this problem in the archive.
Never use someone else's code, read the tutorials or communicate with other person during a virtual contest.

No tag edit access

The problem statement has recently been changed. View the changes.

×
F. Make It Ascending

time limit per test

7 secondsmemory limit per test

512 megabytesinput

standard inputoutput

standard outputYou are given an array $$$a$$$ consisting of $$$n$$$ elements. You may apply several operations (possibly zero) to it.

During each operation, you choose two indices $$$i$$$ and $$$j$$$ ($$$1 \le i, j \le n$$$; $$$i \ne j$$$), increase $$$a_j$$$ by $$$a_i$$$, and remove the $$$i$$$-th element from the array (so the indices of all elements to the right to it decrease by $$$1$$$, and $$$n$$$ also decreases by $$$1$$$).

Your goal is to make the array $$$a$$$ strictly ascending. That is, the condition $$$a_1 < a_2 < \dots < a_n$$$ should hold (where $$$n$$$ is the resulting size of the array).

Calculate the minimum number of actions required to make the array strictly ascending.

Input

The first line contains one integer $$$T$$$ ($$$1 \le T \le 10000$$$) — the number of test cases.

Each test case consists of two lines. The first line contains one integer $$$n$$$ ($$$1 \le n \le 15$$$) — the number of elements in the initial array $$$a$$$.

The second line contains $$$n$$$ integers $$$a_1$$$, $$$a_2$$$, ..., $$$a_n$$$ ($$$1 \le a_i \le 10^6$$$).

It is guaranteed that:

- the number of test cases having $$$n \ge 5$$$ is not greater than $$$5000$$$;
- the number of test cases having $$$n \ge 8$$$ is not greater than $$$500$$$;
- the number of test cases having $$$n \ge 10$$$ is not greater than $$$100$$$;
- the number of test cases having $$$n \ge 11$$$ is not greater than $$$50$$$;
- the number of test cases having $$$n \ge 12$$$ is not greater than $$$25$$$;
- the number of test cases having $$$n \ge 13$$$ is not greater than $$$10$$$;
- the number of test cases having $$$n \ge 14$$$ is not greater than $$$3$$$;
- the number of test cases having $$$n \ge 15$$$ is not greater than $$$1$$$.

Output

For each test case, print the answer as follows:

In the first line, print $$$k$$$ — the minimum number of operations you have to perform. Then print $$$k$$$ lines, each containing two indices $$$i$$$ and $$$j$$$ for the corresponding operation. Note that the numeration of elements in the array changes after removing elements from it. If there are multiple optimal sequences of operations, print any one of them.

Example

Input

4 8 2 1 3 5 1 2 4 5 15 16384 8192 4096 2048 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 2 3 3 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Output

3 6 8 1 6 4 1 7 1 15 1 13 1 11 1 9 1 7 1 5 1 3 1 2 1 0

Note

In the first test case, the sequence of operations changes $$$a$$$ as follows:

$$$[2, 1, 3, 5, 1, 2, 4, 5] \rightarrow [2, 1, 3, 5, 1, 4, 7] \rightarrow [1, 3, 5, 1, 6, 7] \rightarrow [2, 3, 5, 6, 7]$$$.

Codeforces (c) Copyright 2010-2022 Mike Mirzayanov

The only programming contests Web 2.0 platform

Server time: Aug/17/2022 10:32:55 (f1).

Desktop version, switch to mobile version.

Supported by

User lists

Name |
---|