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B. Permutation Chain

time limit per test

2 secondsmemory limit per test

256 megabytesinput

standard inputoutput

standard outputA permutation of length $$$n$$$ is a sequence of integers from $$$1$$$ to $$$n$$$ such that each integer appears in it exactly once.

Let the fixedness of a permutation $$$p$$$ be the number of fixed points in it — the number of positions $$$j$$$ such that $$$p_j = j$$$, where $$$p_j$$$ is the $$$j$$$-th element of the permutation $$$p$$$.

You are asked to build a sequence of permutations $$$a_1, a_2, \dots$$$, starting from the identity permutation (permutation $$$a_1 = [1, 2, \dots, n]$$$). Let's call it a permutation chain. Thus, $$$a_i$$$ is the $$$i$$$-th permutation of length $$$n$$$.

For every $$$i$$$ from $$$2$$$ onwards, the permutation $$$a_i$$$ should be obtained from the permutation $$$a_{i-1}$$$ by swapping any two elements in it (not necessarily neighboring). The fixedness of the permutation $$$a_i$$$ should be strictly lower than the fixedness of the permutation $$$a_{i-1}$$$.

Consider some chains for $$$n = 3$$$:

- $$$a_1 = [1, 2, 3]$$$, $$$a_2 = [1, 3, 2]$$$ — that is a valid chain of length $$$2$$$. From $$$a_1$$$ to $$$a_2$$$, the elements on positions $$$2$$$ and $$$3$$$ get swapped, the fixedness decrease from $$$3$$$ to $$$1$$$.
- $$$a_1 = [2, 1, 3]$$$, $$$a_2 = [3, 1, 2]$$$ — that is not a valid chain. The first permutation should always be $$$[1, 2, 3]$$$ for $$$n = 3$$$.
- $$$a_1 = [1, 2, 3]$$$, $$$a_2 = [1, 3, 2]$$$, $$$a_3 = [1, 2, 3]$$$ — that is not a valid chain. From $$$a_2$$$ to $$$a_3$$$, the elements on positions $$$2$$$ and $$$3$$$ get swapped but the fixedness increase from $$$1$$$ to $$$3$$$.
- $$$a_1 = [1, 2, 3]$$$, $$$a_2 = [3, 2, 1]$$$, $$$a_3 = [3, 1, 2]$$$ — that is a valid chain of length $$$3$$$. From $$$a_1$$$ to $$$a_2$$$, the elements on positions $$$1$$$ and $$$3$$$ get swapped, the fixedness decrease from $$$3$$$ to $$$1$$$. From $$$a_2$$$ to $$$a_3$$$, the elements on positions $$$2$$$ and $$$3$$$ get swapped, the fixedness decrease from $$$1$$$ to $$$0$$$.

Find the longest permutation chain. If there are multiple longest answers, print any of them.

Input

The first line contains a single integer $$$t$$$ ($$$1 \le t \le 99$$$) — the number of testcases.

The only line of each testcase contains a single integer $$$n$$$ ($$$2 \le n \le 100$$$) — the required length of permutations in the chain.

Output

For each testcase, first, print the length of a permutation chain $$$k$$$.

Then print $$$k$$$ permutations $$$a_1, a_2, \dots, a_k$$$. $$$a_1$$$ should be an identity permutation of length $$$n$$$ ($$$[1, 2, \dots, n]$$$). For each $$$i$$$ from $$$2$$$ to $$$k$$$, $$$a_i$$$ should be obtained by swapping two elements in $$$a_{i-1}$$$. It should also have a strictly lower fixedness than $$$a_{i-1}$$$.

Example

Input

223

Output

2 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 3 3 2 1 3 1 2

Codeforces (c) Copyright 2010-2023 Mike Mirzayanov

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