Codeforces Round 889 (Div. 2) |
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Finished |

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constructive algorithms

math

*1900

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C2. Dual (Hard Version)

time limit per test

1 secondmemory limit per test

256 megabytesinput

standard inputoutput

standard outputThe only difference between the two versions of this problem is the constraint on the maximum number of operations. You can make hacks only if all versions of the problem are solved.

You are given an array $$$a_1, a_2,\dots, a_n$$$ of integers (positive, negative or $$$0$$$). You can perform multiple operations on the array (possibly $$$0$$$ operations).

In one operation, you choose $$$i, j$$$ ($$$1 \leq i, j \leq n$$$, they can be equal) and set $$$a_i := a_i + a_j$$$ (i.e., add $$$a_j$$$ to $$$a_i$$$).

Make the array non-decreasing (i.e., $$$a_i \leq a_{i+1}$$$ for $$$1 \leq i \leq n-1$$$) in at most $$$31$$$ operations. You do not need to minimize the number of operations.

Input

Each test contains multiple test cases. The first line contains the number of test cases $$$t$$$ ($$$1 \le t \le 500$$$). The description of the test cases follows.

The first line contains a single integer $$$n$$$ ($$$1 \le n \le 20$$$) — the length of the array.

The second line contains $$$n$$$ integers $$$a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n$$$ ($$$-20 \le a_i \le 20$$$) — the array before performing the operations.

Output

For each test case, output your operations in the following format.

The first line should contain an integer $$$k$$$ ($$$0 \le k \le 31$$$) — the number of operations.

The next $$$k$$$ lines represent the $$$k$$$ operations in order. Each of these $$$k$$$ lines should contain two integers $$$i$$$ and $$$j$$$ ($$$1 \leq i, j \leq n$$$) — the corresponding operation consists in adding $$$a_j$$$ to $$$a_i$$$.

After all the operations, the array $$$a_1, a_2,\dots, a_n$$$ must be non-decreasing.

Example

Input

1022 141 2 -10 352 1 1 1 180 0 0 0 0 0 0 051 2 -4 3 -101011 12 13 14 15 -15 -16 -17 -18 -1971 9 3 -4 -3 -2 -1310 9 8201 -14 2 -10 6 -5 10 -13 10 7 -14 19 -5 19 1 18 -16 -7 12 820-15 -17 -13 8 14 -13 10 -4 11 -4 -16 -6 15 -4 -2 7 -9 5 -5 17

Output

1 2 1 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 0 7 3 4 3 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 15 6 1 6 1 6 1 7 2 7 2 7 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 9 4 9 4 9 4 10 5 10 5 10 5 8 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 4 1 4 3 2 1 3 1 3 1 31 14 1 18 7 13 11 15 11 6 4 5 17 19 6 19 12 10 5 11 12 1 17 15 19 16 10 14 2 16 11 20 7 7 6 9 5 3 6 6 14 17 18 18 14 12 3 17 16 8 18 13 16 9 8 14 8 16 2 11 8 12 7 31 5 12 19 13 9 1 5 17 18 19 6 16 15 8 6 9 15 14 7 10 19 7 17 20 14 4 15 20 4 3 1 8 16 12 16 15 5 6 12 10 11 15 20 3 20 19 13 14 11 14 18 10 7 3 12 17 4 7 13 2 11 13

Note

In the first test case, by adding $$$a_1 = 2$$$ to $$$a_2$$$, we get the array $$$[2, 3]$$$ which is non-decreasing.

In the second test case, the array changes as:

- $$$[1, 2, -10, 3]$$$
- $$$[1, 2, -10, 6]$$$
- $$$[1, 2, -10, 12]$$$
- $$$[1, 2, 2, 12]$$$

In the third test case, the final array is $$$[2, 3, 3, 3, 3]$$$.

Codeforces (c) Copyright 2010-2024 Mike Mirzayanov

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