According to me following are the standard
1. DP / Greedy
4. Sorting/Binary Search/ Data Structures like maps and sets 4. Maths (Basic not FFt or something)
Although these algorithms are sufficient to become candidate master and 5 star if one has speed and accuracy but I believe I will need to learn some advanced algorithms to further increase the level. Can somebody please share the algorithms which are most occurring in 4th/5th question of Codeforces Div 2 round and 2nd/3rd question of codechef div 1 cookoff.