Virtual contest is a way to take part in past contest, as close as possible to participation on time. It is supported only ICPC mode for virtual contests.
If you've seen these problems, a virtual contest is not for you - solve these problems in the archive.
If you just want to solve some problem from a contest, a virtual contest is not for you - solve this problem in the archive.
Never use someone else's code, read the tutorials or communicate with other person during a virtual contest.

No tag edit access

B. Shuffle

time limit per test

1 secondmemory limit per test

256 megabytesinput

standard inputoutput

standard outputYou are given an array consisting of $$$n$$$ integers $$$a_1$$$, $$$a_2$$$, ..., $$$a_n$$$. Initially $$$a_x = 1$$$, all other elements are equal to $$$0$$$.

You have to perform $$$m$$$ operations. During the $$$i$$$-th operation, you choose two indices $$$c$$$ and $$$d$$$ such that $$$l_i \le c, d \le r_i$$$, and swap $$$a_c$$$ and $$$a_d$$$.

Calculate the number of indices $$$k$$$ such that it is possible to choose the operations so that $$$a_k = 1$$$ in the end.

Input

The first line contains a single integer $$$t$$$ ($$$1 \le t \le 100$$$) — the number of test cases. Then the description of $$$t$$$ testcases follow.

The first line of each test case contains three integers $$$n$$$, $$$x$$$ and $$$m$$$ ($$$1 \le n \le 10^9$$$; $$$1 \le m \le 100$$$; $$$1 \le x \le n$$$).

Each of next $$$m$$$ lines contains the descriptions of the operations; the $$$i$$$-th line contains two integers $$$l_i$$$ and $$$r_i$$$ ($$$1 \le l_i \le r_i \le n$$$).

Output

For each test case print one integer — the number of indices $$$k$$$ such that it is possible to choose the operations so that $$$a_k = 1$$$ in the end.

Example

Input

3 6 4 3 1 6 2 3 5 5 4 1 2 2 4 1 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 2

Output

6 2 3

Note

In the first test case, it is possible to achieve $$$a_k = 1$$$ for every $$$k$$$. To do so, you may use the following operations:

- swap $$$a_k$$$ and $$$a_4$$$;
- swap $$$a_2$$$ and $$$a_2$$$;
- swap $$$a_5$$$ and $$$a_5$$$.

In the second test case, only $$$k = 1$$$ and $$$k = 2$$$ are possible answers. To achieve $$$a_1 = 1$$$, you have to swap $$$a_1$$$ and $$$a_1$$$ during the second operation. To achieve $$$a_2 = 1$$$, you have to swap $$$a_1$$$ and $$$a_2$$$ during the second operation.

Codeforces (c) Copyright 2010-2020 Mike Mirzayanov

The only programming contests Web 2.0 platform

Server time: Aug/07/2020 13:14:11 (i2).

Desktop version, switch to mobile version.

Supported by

User lists

Name |
---|