Sherlock found a piece of encrypted data which he thinks will be useful to catch Moriarty. The encrypted data consists of two integer l and r. He noticed that these integers were in hexadecimal form.
He takes each of the integers from l to r, and performs the following operations:
One more example: for integer 1e the sum is sum = 21 + 214. Letters a, b, c, d, e, f denote hexadecimal digits 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, respertively.
Sherlock wants to count the numbers in the range from l to r (both inclusive) which decrease on application of the above four steps. He wants you to answer his q queries for different l and r.
First line contains the integer q (1 ≤ q ≤ 10000).
Each of the next q lines contain two hexadecimal integers l and r (0 ≤ l ≤ r < 1615).
The hexadecimal integers are written using digits from 0 to 9 and/or lowercase English letters a, b, c, d, e, f.
The hexadecimal integers do not contain extra leading zeros.
Output q lines, i-th line contains answer to the i-th query (in decimal notation).
For the second input,
1416 = 2010
sum = 21 + 24 = 18
Thus, it reduces. And, we can verify that it is the only number in range 1 to 1e that reduces.