Hello, Codeforces!

Welcome to the Codeforces LATOKEN Round 1 (Div. 1 + Div. 2) supported by LATOKEN, that will start on Jun/13/2021 18:35 (Moscow time). It will be a combined rated round for both divisions (and div 3). **Please, note the unusual start time.**

All problems were created by Aaeria, crackersamdjam, Dormi, Ninjaclasher, and Plasmatic.

We would like to thank:

- Valentin Preobrazhenskiy from LATOKEN supporting the round.
- 300iq and KAN for coordinating the round and answering our relentless questions.
- arvindr9, Delmos, duality, coderz189, wxhtzdy, PurpleCrayon, kalki411, socho, wleung_bvg, and Zeyu for their invaluable advice and suggestions.
- MikeMirzayanov for great systems Codeforces and Polygon.

You will be given 8 problems and 180 minutes to solve them. This contest features at least one interactive problem, so we recommend reading the guide of interactive problems before the contest.

We hope that statements are short and pretests are strong and that you find the problems interesting! Good luck, have fun, and we wish everyone high ratings!

The scoring distribution will be announced closer to the beginning of the round.

Thanks to LATOKEN, winners will get awesome swag:

- 1st place = MacBook Air M1 + Job offering and Stock Options
- 2nd place = Xiaomi Mi 11 + Job offering and Stock Options
- 3rd place = Xiaomi Mi Notebook Pro 15" Enhanced Edition + Job offering and Stock Options
- 4th-10th place = Job offering and Stock Options + Merchandise Pack
- 11th-55th place = Merchandise Pack

Random 10 participants outside of top-55, who solved at least one problem and participated in rated Codeforces rounds before, will get a t-shirt!

A few words from the LATOKEN team:

We welcome you to the intellectual battle between the best coders from around the world! LATOKEN strives to make trading crypto as easy as having a social media account. We are always looking for the best of the best to join our team. As a result, LATOKEN is currently in Coingecko’s Top 15 with over 600 000 app installs within just one year from its launch and 1m+ users in total. The emerging blockchain based financial systems will open exciting opportunities, because crypto is fully global and mostly independent of conservative banks.

If you want to become a part of something bigger, work remotely with a team of international professionals and change the world, contact our recruiters for internships and employment opportunities in the LATOKEN team. Use our bot or fill out the form below and tell us a little about yourself.

**UPD**: The scoring distribution is **500 — 1000 — 1250 — 1500 — 2250 — (1750 — 1250) — 3250 — 3500**.

**UPD**: Editorial

Congratulations to the winners:

The prizes will be distributed in the next few days after we remove cheaters.

Do the contest or TLE real life

As a tester, the problems are great, as always. I hope you enjoy one of the first Canadian rounds!

Leaf -> 100%

finally your round is here!, excited for the C problem. PurpleCrayon ORZ

Mandatory "tourist, What will you do with your MacBook Air M1?" comment.

I was just wondering why 1st-3rd placed participants are not being offered the job while 4th-10th are XD.

FAANG already hired them.

They are the real thugs, they can live with winning cash prizes in big coding contests.

He is

ValentinPreobrazhenskiy not Valentine.Am I going to be the one of those 10 ? rounding up number of people solving atleast 1 problem to

`20000`

as we have 3 hours given probaility is`( 1/(20000))`

, . It comes out to be`(0.00005)`

Well almost, you need to multiply 0.00005 by 10, because "Random 10 participants outside of top-55...". So that's 0.00005*10 = 0.0005. But I don't think it changes anything)

be annoy of the suck statement at last several round.

`statements are short`

look forward to this round.I was wondering why your rating graph is like this!!!

yep, I was graduated several year, now i want CF agin!!!

PurpleCrayon orz

Unfortunately, the start time is 11.35 PM in my area :(

thank you for useful and interesting comment

As a tester I must say the problems are nice and interesting. May you all get a positive delta.

If you forgot to see the prizes section of the post.

Do visit again!

very weird time :|

Just switched from Instagram to Codeforces, a few days back, and trust me Codeforces is much better.

Teach me senpai!

note the

unusual start timeis't it unusual.. i know you guys are downvoting just because i am pupil

correlation =/= causation

≠

!=

!(a ^ b)

`4th-10th place = *Job offering* and Stock Options + Merchandise Pack`

I want this level of confidence in my life.

I will sleep during the round.

SpoilerCodeforces is the best ❤️

Nevermind

Is it rated?

Sorry I'm getting back to CF after many years and now I see there is also a Div3. Will this round also be rated for Div3 folks?

Yes, there is pretty much no div3 as such. Anyone who's a div3 is also a valid div2

As now there's also a Div4 you're Div4. But all contests of higher divisions than your division are rated for you. Unless round has separate contests for separate divisions. Because then you can only participate in your division contest.

his ranks say otherwise, he'll soon reach expert

Thanks! I hope so too. I aim to reach Div1 sometime in the next few months. Let's see how it goes.

Just switched from Instagram to Codeforces, a few days back, and trust me Codeforces is much better.

Memes with more class; comments with more sass

I guess top gear isn't popular here :/

not funny didnt laugh

if I didn't laugh doesn't mean anyone won't. No need deleting it

wannahavealife 1000-7 ? ? ? ?

993-7 ? ? ?? ? ?? ? ? ?

986-7 ?????????????❓❓❓❓❓❓

979-7 ????????????

972-7

965-7????????????

¿958-7?

?????? 952-7?????

it will be unrated for div 3??

no

It will be a combined rated round for both divisions (and div 3).

div3 is a subset of div2

Seems codeforces finally realized nobody reads this rules anyways, so they just removed it lol

This contest is rated for division 3 or not?

Any please replay

Yes

Thanks for your fast reply

So are you gonna participate or not? Just curious about the effect that being rated causes on participation.

I will definitely participate in this contest .

Every div3 member is also considered a part of div2 too. So hopefully it would be rated for everybody

@authors can you please help with this ambiguous statment maybe write it "rated for everybody" ?

interesting interactive problem. I hopeeeeeee

Or another binary search problem for Problemset

I like binary search problem <3

Yeah only when I know it's a binary search problem.

RIP my hairs after 3 hours :(

Wait.. You guys still have hair?

wait, you guys still have +ve delta

cuz we guys don't use alts.

Lol.

wait, there are alts??

It's clearly not working for you.

Lol sorry XD.

Out of my place to conjecture this, but is moongazer your alter ego's account? Seems like instead of discussing ethical issues inside you discussed them here!

Unfortunately, I am not that insane.

Contest will clash with Roland Garros finals :(

The final for me was yesterday with nadal :P

Haha true

Everyone here should know that Latoken is a scam exchange: https://www.cointelligence.com/exchanges_list/latoken/ (In Russian): https://telegra.ph/Kak-rossijskij-skam-LATOKEN-zarabatyvaet-dengi-i-stroit-totalitarnuyu-sektu-12-13

I mean, it's dealing with crypto, and crypto is highly unregulated...

But anyways, free money for CF!

Is this contest rated?

Yes, it's rated for everyone.

The scoring distribution is 500 — 1000 — 1250 — 1500 — 2250 — (1750 — 1250) — 3250 — 3500

(1750-1250) means?? can anyone explain please.

There will be two parts to the problem. One easier version(F1-1750) and one hard(F2-1250).

One More Macbook to tourist

All those downvotes are from Radewoosh alt account.

Wouldn't vote manipulator get punishedfor creating alt-accounts to downvote, for it would have a bad influence?]

(Actually, CF seems to clear all vote that was voted by alts)

Bruh

For some reason there is a scoring distribution update in the English version of this blog post, but there is no one in Russian version.

UPD: It's ok now.

For real, what's the point of making combined round when there are enough problems to split round for both divisions? Nobody from div1 wants to solve first few problems as well as nobody from div2 even reads last few problems

for prize distribution purposes :P

i want solve first few problems :p

Hope! this round will go better for me than the Deltix round

The entire comment section in one

not-somewhat-relatedmeme:Most People: This is definitely my chance to prove myself and get MacBook Air!! Tourist: This is definitely my chance to be first again!!

I am betting that tourist will not win this round. It will be some other LGM.

You are right :)

it's div1 + div2 = div3 :)

div is not a linear transformation, you can't write div(ax+by)=a*div(x)+b*div(y)

-_-

Divergence(div) is indeed linear...

today junior tesla is expecting to solve 4 problems and upsolve extra 1 problem. Lets see.

Depression comes from expectations :(

Thanks to Djokovic I can convince myself that my rating crashed because I was watching Roland Garros finale

while giving the contest.

Although the Problem C was very interesting here's a meme

...

Nah, I helped him sucessfully

Div 1+2 = rating loss

It takes eternity for queue to end

Only to get "Idleness limit exceeded on pretest 1".

queueforces

There are no running submissions.

Is this still rated because the queue has been stuck for a long time now ?

should be as it is same for everyone i think.

.

It should be rated as queue practically didn't affect the round

I'm waiting for the results of my submissions from last 10 min.

queue too long.

People who are in queue are gonna remain in the queue forever if the number of running submissions is zero.

I always wanted to do it, and today I finally did

you have plenty of time to play with these queue times :D

If someone wrongly pastes commented solution of A in problem B's submission, and locks problem B alone, won't this be a problem as others in room who have not solved A can see solution of A by solving only problem B ? And what if someone has commented previous problems solutions for all submissions ? How does codeforces handle this ? MikeMirzayanov

Do you mean that somebody uploads their solution for A instead of a solution for B by mistake? But a solution for A is very unlikely to pass pretests for B. And it makes no sense to show the source code of failed submissions to hackers (I don't know if that's how it really works, because I have never tried hacking other solutions in non-educational rounds yet).

Or do you mean that somebody submits a valid solution for B, together with a commented out solution for A in the same source file? Is anyone ever doing something like this? I do sometimes use my A solution's source code as an initial template for B. But by the time when I'm ready to submit it, no parts of A remain there.

Is there any difference between submitting code with commented solution of other problem in it and pasting it in an open blog ( or social media, IDE, etc. ) ?

Anyone else having difficulty to understand the

Problem C?Or am I the only one?UPD: I got it. And I'm stupid. :(

UPD2: I think, I solved it.

I perfectly understand it, the only problem is I am stupid and cannot figure out how to solve it ;)

Same with me for Problem B. I guess it'll be a sad contest for many.

Unfortunately it was that way for me with both B and C; I suppose I can kiss my pupil rank goodbye...

Yes predictor is showing -90 for you

I dunno why but when I first read problem B I was thinking of the 3 columns problem without any proof and then boom dunno how I got accepted L.O.L.

Would you like to explain what is

3 columns problem?The subproblem I generate to consider problem B i guest?

Consider the i, i — 1 and i + 1 position.

I spent half an hour, read several times, and don't understand what it means by "only by swapping numbers in a column". and finally I ask a question to admin, and then I got it.

Yes, I didn't notice the announcement first. I felt really dumb noticing it after few minutes.

interactiveforces...

ME: Get's TLE on D :( .No worries, let's stress test by generating some random trees. Google please give me a random tree generator?

GOOGLE: Sure

Use this: https://codeforces.com/blog/entry/68835

The person who explained B's sample test cases

SpoilerHow to solve E? I think the soln is something like, do individual blocks on k, for last (n % k), if (n % k) is:

Is this roughly along the correct lines?

You can think that you have n columns and in one operation you add +1 to exactly k of them. You need to obtain odd sum in each column.

How can you go for 11 4? I couldn't get this.

if

n % kis odd and k is even, the answer wouldn't exist.Thanks, then why the hell my solution is failing. Btw this is the only case where answer ceases to exist, right?

Not sure about when

n % kis odd and k is also odd. How are you solving this?Just make a move on first $$$n - n \% k$$$ elements and last n % k elements and this is same as k -> odd and n % k -> even.

you might save some moves by saving up n-(n%k) indices by repeating them in previous queries. like

n=13, k=5

q1 : 1 2 3 4 13

q2 : 5 6 7 8 13

q3 : 9 10 11 12 13

Yup I know and implemented this too, the above move needs to be done when n/k == 1.

Answer doesn't exist only when k has more powers of 2 than n I think.

n = 6, k = 4:

1 2 3 4

1 2 3 5

1 2 3 6

That's part of it, but note that it's not always optimal to do $$$\lfloor n / k\rfloor$$$ blocks, sometimes you might want to do more or less. When I say more, I mean you can wrap around and cover an index twice. As an example, the optimal strategy for $$$n = 10, k = 7$$$ might look like this:

EDIT: After reading other comments it seems I did E in a very jank way, I did some strange bullshit with blocks of size $$$k$$$ that passed pretests so pray no FST.

Make a graph with N + 1 nodes.

Node i represents a state where i indices are used odd number of times.

Here Node 0 is our starting point, and Node N is our desired end goal.

Make an undirected edge from i to j, if you can perform an operation move from state i to state j. (can be bruted).

Answer is shortest_path(0, N).

Since we can move from one state to another state easily (again, brute), we get the answer after knowing the shortest path.

Edit: Ignore

Could you elaborate on how the number of edges can be bruted? Can't the degree of each node be upto O(k)?

For a state i, brute the number of ones being converted to zeroes. (zeroes_to_ones + ones_to_zeroes = K).

This way, you get all neighbours of i in O(k).

Sorry I just realized my question was utter nonsense. I was asking how this didn't become $$$O(n ^ 2)$$$ even though degree could be upto $$$O(k)$$$ per node. I forgot $$$n \leq 500$$$ in the problem.

If n%k equals 1 and k is odd, then answer exist. For example, for n = 6, k = 5:

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 6

1 2 3 5 6

1 2 4 5 6

1 3 4 5 6

2 3 4 5 6

Using bfs from the final state and keeping count of number of positions used odd number of times will suffice

Today I got one of the best feeling that is solution D got accepted in last minute.

I got WA on pretest 3. Can you give some hints?

Were your queries more than N/2?

what was pretest 3 of E?

Thanks for including some easy problems for amateurs like me. :)

https://codeforces.com/contest/1534/submission/119394653 — This same case passes in my machine in 2 queries, i tried multiple other cases too. But CF says here it took more than 2 queries. Did i miss something here?

D problem... Killed more dreams than Fear every will ... :(

Solved F1 two minutes before the contests ends, what an exciting contest for me.

Same here. gg.

Can someone tell me, Why I'm getting

ILEin Div2D ?SUBMISSION.

I mean, I literally tried every combination of printf and endl. But couldn't get it worked. I usually use endl as a flusher but here it's not working.

The query format differs from what you print here.

+0 delta GG.

Should have not given the contest in the first place :(

Hey buddy , do you know how can ishow the delta points for some reason i can't see it ?

You can either download an extension or use this to see your predicted delta

CodeForces Predictor

I feel the problem statements could have been clearer/presented better, especially those with large statements.

At first glance, I saw "It can be proven that that if it is possible to recover the XOR sum under the given constraints, it can be done in at most 500 queries. That is, d <= 500", and went to write a code for atmost 500 queries..

Didn't help it was an interactive problem, where, if there's a WA I don't know if it's my IO format, or my solution is actually wrong.

how to solve D?

Every tree is bipartite graph. You can ask only about nodes in smaller part. To know if node is in smaller part u can use this fact: distance between nodes from different parts is odd. So u just ask about first node, counting (cnt) nodes that have odd distance, and if cnt < (n+1)/2, first node is in bigger part, otherwise it is in smaller part. And then just greedy alg.

can u explain these smaller/bigger parts in more detail. And how you are representing a tree as a bipartite graph. Would be appreciated

So, in bipartite graph every node belongs to one of two parts. Part that contains more nodes than other is bigger part, other part is smaller part.

So, as I said if distance between two nodes is odd, nodes belongs to different parts. So, ask about first node, every node that has even distance to the first one, is in the same part with first node, otherwise, if distance is odd, it is in different part

Here was my approach:

Arbitrarily choose some node to be the root. Query that node. That gives you the rank of each node in the rooted tree. Our goal is to find the parent of each node.

Iterate over the nodes in any order. Query each node whose parent is not yet known. We can use the result of the query along with the rank information to find that node's ancestors, siblings, and children.

Notice that if we associate each query with the node and its parent, these pairs don't overlap. This proves that we won't exceed $$$\lceil\frac{n}{2}\rceil$$$ queries.

I think I missed D by printing a edge multiple times :(

The only time I am in top 500 is during system testing (T_T)

How to solve B?I had some proof that decreasing a number to the maximum of two sides will work but got a wrong answer on pretest 2

you only need to decrease a number if it is greater than both its adjacent element.

I did so but still a wrong answer.

SpoilerI think this is becoz , u have not dealt with n=1 separately for input 1 1 2

the answer should be 2

Erase a block off of a histogram if it is strictly higher than the previous histogram and the one after it. If you do so, you will pay $1 for each erased block and decrease ugliness by 2.

Make sure you only do this on bars that are strictly higher than both of its adjacent bars. Also be careful with the left and right end bars as they only have one adjacent bar.

I take care of both this situations but it still doesn't work.Can you take a look at my submission if you have time?

Handle n=1 case separately. For n=1,ans will be arr[0]

Yep I see my codes doesn't work there . Thanks!

Suppose we have our original array orig and and our new array arr. We want to minimize:

So.. if we update $$$orig[i]$$$ to some $$$arr[i]$$$, we need to make sure that it is going to decrease

as compared to

And from here, you can formally prove that its optimal to update a value iff it forms a mountain.

And this makes some intuitive sense too: obviously, updating a valley is a bad idea. And if we update something that is neither a valley nor a mountain, then its pretty pointless and suboptimal.

Also case when $$$n = 1$$$ needs some special case (or at least, my implementation needed special care).

Padding the array with one extra 0 element in the beginning and one extra 0 element in the end removes the need to handle special cases.

how to solve problem C ?

count the number of cycles formed from $$$a,b$$$ and then $$$answer = 2^{#cycles}$$$

2^(number of connected component)

Try to inverse some column, u will notice that now there is same number in first row, then try to inverse it, and repeat it until it has solved configuration. Every column than u have visited belongs to one cycle. Every cycle is independent from other cycles. Every cycle have 2 states. So answer is just 2^(amount of cycles)

In C, the columns build components. That is, if you swap one column, you also have to swap another one, then another one and so on, until a circle is complete.

Find the number of such circles, and ans=2^number since foreach circle we can swap it, or not swap it.

C gave me deja vu for this problem: 1465C - Peaceful Rooks

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwi_JeZbEu4&t=1s

What was pretest 3 in problem D? I failed it 7 times!

https://codeforces.com/blog/entry/91617?#comment-803516 YAY I was right. All Tourist fans owe me a buck xD. Congrats Benq

Anyone tried randomization in D and got it accepted?

When Ninjaclasher forces you to do a problem with your own name in it

Thank you for the round! The problems were interesting.

why G was so big constraint? My O(NlogN) solution get TLE (TT)

Hey Guys Do you know how can i see the delta points columns in the contest ?

install an extension called CF-predictor

Does anyone know why I can't view other people's submissions? Apologies if the reason was mentioned somewhere already and I missed it.

I was thinking the same. Clicking on solutions, but nothing is happening.

Because admins hasn't made solutions public yet.

you can check editorials https://codeforces.com/blog/entry/91760

finally the rating loosing streak is back. So excited to have more negative deltas. Wish me luck.

Thanks for this round and making me feel how dumb I am.

Apparently many people solved $$$E$$$ with some casework. You can do also like: (which I think is intended solution).

SolutionAt each stage, you count number of numbers which have been XORed odd times and even times. You can let this be a node in a graph. Basically, node $$$i$$$ denotes a state in which there are $$$i$$$ numbers which have been XORed even times and $$$n-i$$$ numbers which have been XORed odd times.

Observe that, if you select $$$j$$$ out of the $$$i$$$ even XORed numbers and $$$k-j$$$ out of the $$$n-i$$$ odd XORed numbers, then you will now have $$$i-j+(k-j)$$$ even XORed numbers. So make edge from $$$i$$$ to $$$i+k-2*j$$$.

Now, just do a BFS from node $$$n$$$ and check whether node $$$0$$$ is reachable!

Big ups to the authors for the nice problems, and bigger ups for including the answers to the possible sample queries in the interactive problems where it's reasonable. That's such a nice thing to do <3

will the number of cycles and number of connected components be equal in C?

Yes, basically all connected components will be pure cycles

2^(Cycles) is the answer

Please can you check my submission 119395523? I calculated 2^(connected comp) but it's giving WA on tc4.

In your solve function, for clearing the g[i], i should be from 0 to n, i.e., for(int i=0;i<=n;i++) (you did i<n instead of i<=n)

Is there a way to see how many people failed system test for a particular problem ?

They will never show that as people will backfire for weak pretests. Although this contest had strong pretests. No one on my friend list got FST.

I found a way, just go to the status bar and check all rejected submissions keeping the tests greater than the number of pretests.

What if i tell you, that in problem A you just need to check whether given matrix satisfies:

or

Realized this in post-contest discussion with my friend.

This is the intended solution.

I mean, there is no other solutions

You can also implement bfs or dfs and color the graph while doing so. Not that it would be better, but it also works.

It would still give chess-like board

its just another way of checking it*

Finally Tutorials are here. I was thinking of finally offering some goat to the devil. Thanks to problem setters for fast update.

PS: BEFORE YOU COMPLAIN NO TUTORIAL TO BE SEEN IN THE BLOG. TRY TO FIND IT FIRST

Fst on D coming :(

What is FST?

Failed system test

Now it's time to wonder if I got a great place thanks to competing drunk or despite competing drunk.

https://codeforces.com/contest/1534/submission/119394653

Can somebody try this out on their machine. I submitted this in contest and it gave WA on pretest-1 and i tried it on my machine multiple times and it worked well. I'm really frustrated as I don't understand how the same code in 2 machines can give different output (my strategy isn't random, the program will always query the same nodes for a particular tree everytime it runs).

When your local submissions behave differently from codeforces submissions, it often indicates that your code may have undefined behavior. In your case, I think you are trying to access an element out of bounds of the

`done`

array: see 119406377 where the assertions I added fail. I think it is due to the line`fire2.pb(mp(x,b+1));`

, where`b`

can be up to`n-1`

Thankyou so much for taking out the time to look into this and getting back to regarding the issue. I definitely learnt something new today. I understand why this happened now. Have a nice day :)

Thanks for the great problems and strong pretests!

Looks like highest rating record on codeforces is going to be broken.

Two questions:

F: Does anybody remember a similar situation when solving a small version and then trying to upgrade it was a mistake? Normally it's rather a good way, but there the small version required only SCC while the big one doesn't (which may lead you to really long code).

H: Isn't an interaction with $$$10^5$$$ flushes rather slow/dangerous/generally not CF-friendly?

I finally found a problem with a good upgrade in this F. Not like F1 has an interesting idea, just a straightforward "build graph, do SCC", where the main point of failure is building the graph in a wrong way, but there's an element of double checking — if F1 passes, you can expand on it to solve F2, while if your SCC is wrong and pretests for F1 don't catch it, then pretests for F2 might because it's way more than SCC!

There's a good reason to go for SCC in F2 even if you don't have F1. As soon as you have it abstracted as a directed graph, compressing to a DAG gives you plenty of guarantees for the next step — actually figuring out the solution. It's not hard to write either, just reproduce those 20 lines of Tarjan from whichever online resource you want.

Well, I took my code to F2, erased the whole thing with SCC, did some obvious stuff and it worked, so I don’t find SCC useful here at all.

Well, I used SCC and didn't have to erase and rewrite, so I think it was a good path to take.

What’s your solution then?

Mark vertices that you need to cover, make scc, mark respective vertices in scc, unmark those that are reachable from another marked.

Now you have set of marked vertices none of which is reachable from the other.

I claim that you can sort them in some order that any source in SCC will cover segment of marked vertices, just sort them by column id of any marked representative in scc vertices.

Now you have to figure out minimum and maximum reachable marked vertex from each source and cover array with minimum number of segments, which can be done greedily without actually finding segments: take first unmarked vertex, go through back edges and mark every node as visited, from each marked node go down and mark all nodes as visited as well. You will reach all sources that cover first marked vertex, which is precisely what greedy on array does. Then take next marked unvisited vertex and so on.

First, rephrase the whole thing as: you've got a directed graph where some vertices are marked (the $$$a_i$$$-th sand in $$$i$$$-th column), find the smallest set of vertices such that each marked vertex is reachable from at least one chosen vertex.

I compress to DAG, note that only topmost components should be chosen, then note that from the way the graph is constructed, no two topmost components can share a column, so they're easy to sort. Also, paths in the graph are actual paths in the grid, so the set of topmost components from which a given vertex/component can be reached is a contiguous interval.

With a simple graph traversal, for each component, I find the leftmost and rightmost of the top components which are above it (minimum and maximum of their numbers in sorted order) and the problem reduces to picking the smallest number of points that cover all given intervals, which is well-known.

I thought there should be a natural extension in F. So I continued with the SCC formulation and reduced it to finding a minimum size set of vertices in a DAG such that every leaf is reachable from some vertex in the chosen set. Then I tried to solve it with some (wrong) flow models. Does anyone know if this problem admits a good solution in general?

119382434 Can someone tell me why I'm getting runtime error?

In practice mode (i.e. after the contest), runtime errors on codeforces can be caught by the C++ diagnostics compiler automatically. I resubmitted and it shows that your char arrays

`a`

and`c`

are too small: 119406134Thanks for the information. Is there any way to overcome this error?

Make the arrays bigger, e.g.

`char a[n+1][m+1], c[n+1][m+1]`

. Alternatively, use 0-based indexing in the rest of your code.An array

`int a[50]`

only has valid positions`a[0], a[1], ..., a[49]`

.Benq has raised the bar of highest cf rating to 3796 now. Beating Tourist . Congratulations Benq.

https://codeforces.com/contest/1534/submission/119344612 Why did this fst? Can't seem to figure out.

Edit -> Don't use global variables when you don't have to.

You could simply use "assign" instead of "resize" and you won't have to worry about global variables.

Accepted Submission

Hi. Can someone explain me why I got WA on test 4 in B? The idea is correct but I can't find the mistake in my solution. Thanks

119386786

`hist[i+1]`

causes an undefined behavior because the max`n`

is`4e5`

and the size of`hist`

is`4e5`

, enlarge`hist`

by 1 element and soln will passI gave hist a size of 4 * 100005 which is 4 * (1e5 + 5) so that shouldn't be the problem. Also, I just tried with hist[(int) 4e6] and again got WA on test 4.

ah, I'm blind, sorry, you don't fill it with zeros for every testcase, that's the reason, it is global

good to be back

can some one tell why I am getting WA on this submission my friends solved literally the same idea and they got AC I literally can't find any wrong I am getting wrong on pretest 2 my program is printing 01234501234512345623456734567845678956789100 how can the program prints smth like this plz help https://codeforces.com/contest/1534/submission/119401086

I made a few little changes in the cases where n = 1 and n = 2, and it passed: 119404096

Since the highest ever rating title was most likely taken (at least for now) from tourist by Benq, do you think he will take his revenge and first reach the 3800 mark?

Any bets who will be first over 4000?

Neither of them.

I suggested this in the past:

SpoilerBut now that Benq got the highest max rate on Codeforces history, The competition has become strong!

but you forgot Radewoosh, He also get a rating of 3700+

now (Benq VS tourist VS Radewoosh), The trio with a rating of 3700+

To not keep you waiting, the ratings updated preliminarily. In a few hours/days, I will remove cheaters and update the ratings again!

Waiting for the +1. I want the IM.

become newbie!

Really liked C. I am not sure if this was already commented by someone on problem C, but here is what I did. Let the first row be the permutation $$$a$$$ and let the second row be $$$b$$$. We have the property that $$$a_i \ne b_i$$$ for all $$$1 \leqslant i \leqslant n$$$. Now, since this does not change the answer, apply the permutation $$$a^{-1}$$$ on both arrays.(by this I mean changing indice $$$i$$$ to $$$a^{-1}_{i}$$$) Now we have the identity permututaion and some derangement of it at the bottom. Let this derangement be $$$c$$$. Note that $$$c$$$ is equal to $$$b \cdot a^{-1}$$$. The important observation is that if you swap $$$i$$$ with $$$c_i$$$, then continuing you must swap $$$c_i$$$ with $$$c_{c_i}$$$ and so on until you "cycle" back to $$$i$$$. This inspires to think of the cycles in the permutation $$$c$$$. So, if there are $$$X$$$ cycles, we have $$$2$$$ possible states for each of them. Either you go through that cycle once or you do nothing.(note that going through a cycle brings you back to where you started). Thus the answer is $$$2^{X} \pmod {10^9+7}$$$. So, we can say more about the graph in the tutorial, each vertex has degree $$$2$$$.

In my C solution 119368225, the array formed of upper/lower pairs simply gets sorted by the value of the upper element in each pair (since this doesn't change the answer). After this is done, the upper elements became the identity permutation and the bottom elements became a derangement of it. The rest is the same.

The only difference is that my solution has $$$O(n \log n)$$$ time complexity because of applying sort. And yours is a smarter $$$O(n)$$$ solution, achieving the same end result. My reasoning was

"let's sort the input data and see if the problem becomes more simple"and indeed that's what happened! I overlooked the fact that this degraded time complexity, but humongous sizes of the input data typically have i/o as the performance bottleneck (to the extent that C++ people are forced to use the sync_with_stdio voodoo magic). While sorting the input data rarely or even never becomes a real performance problem.Nice idea to escape using too much space. Really liked that sorting idea! I never thought of using that to make the code simpler! Thanks for the help!

Still don't understand why my solution on D catches: "Idleness limit exceeded on test 1". I even do cout.flush() after endl. Can anyone help me?

My last submission: https://codeforces.com/contest/1534/submission/119510328

This 3 changes need , actually for ask query format should be like "? x"...

[32 line] -> cout << "? 1" << endl;

[54 line] -> cout <<"? "<< j << endl;

[68 line] -> cout <<"? "<< j << endl;

your modified code accepted link

omg, how haven't I seen this?)

Can anyone please tell me what is wrong with my code 119381067

the author

[DELETED]

[DELETED]

[DELETED]

Dear contest team,

I received a message that two of my solutions (B, D) significantly coincide with what user "gamegame" submitted. If you take a look at them, they are significantly different, especially D. I wrote and compiled my code locally without using any online resources. This round was my best contest in years, and I would be very sad if the rating changes were rolled back even though I didn't share my code with anyone or copy gamegame's code in any way.

When will you announce random T-shirt winners?

Why do you care about t-shirt winners when you didn't participate?

Please announce random tshirts winner

Why do you care about a t-shirt?

Maybe because it looks cool?

Dear contest team(Dormi), (I'm posting it pretty late that's the reason I'm tagging you, sorry), I've received this message two days back however I saw it today, I just want to explain the whole thing rest it completely depends on you, apparently the guy (sanduio) whose code is similar to mine has been cheating in all the contests (he should've been blocked by now), please just have a look at his submissions, Your text to link here..., on that particular day I was as usual using cp helper extension in my VSCode however while running the test cases the antivirus was displaying that the trojan virus has been found and repaired in xyz.cpp file so to avoid that during the contest I shifted to ideone, Honestly I didn't know about that the code is public on Ideone before today. I understand it's my mistake that I violated one of the rules(which I honestly didn't know) however I'd like you to see his profile and his submissions so that you get the clear picture of the whole case (I'm not the one who copied), and please return back my ratings if possible, they are important for me. (This is the first time I'm posting a comment and honestly I don't understand much about blog and comment system, sorry if there's any error and sorry for being so careless). Thank you.

MikeMirzayanov

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