By ushmitadutta, history, 15 months ago,

In this world who has not heard about HTML? So, if I ask you or probably someone else who has studied computers even in the second grade of his/her school might have learnt the abbreviation of HTML. “HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language”. Read my second-grade computer science book. HTML like other assets in the world of computer technology has gone through a series of evolution. The first version of HTML was written by Tim Bernes-Lee in 1993 but was released officially in December 1999. In layman terms, HTML is the standard markup language for creating web pages. HTML clarifies in itself that it is a markup language then why do people still struggle to answer what kind of a language is HTML. Sad though. So what is a markup language? “In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is visually distinguishable from the content.”-reads Wikipedia. When the document is ready and is presented the markup language does not appear. Digital media uses tags that indicate the parts of the document and accordingly save from repeated formatting. HTML has predefined presentation semantics which determines how the aspects are to be presented in the particular media. Other markup languages like troff and LaTeX require typesetting of instructions. Whereas, Scribe and some other modern markup languages name components, and later process those names to apply formatting or other processing, as in the case of XML. Types of markup languages:- Markup languages are classified into 3 types:- Presentational markup This kind of markup language uses binary codes embedded within document text to produce the WYSIWYG (“what you see is what you get”) effect. Such markup is usually hidden from human users, even authors and editors. Properly speaking, such systems use procedural and/or descriptive markup underneath but convert it to “present” to the user as geometric arrangements of type. Procedural markup Markup is embedded in the text which provides instructions for programs to process the text. toff, TeX and Postscript use this kind of procedural markup language. Descriptive markup Markup is specifically used to label parts of the document for what they are, rather than how they should be processed. This kind of markup style is used by LaTex, HTML and XML.

• -31

By ushmitadutta, history, 18 months ago,

• -8

By ushmitadutta, history, 18 months ago,

• -17

By ushmitadutta, history, 18 months ago,

126112974

Check out the solution here.

import java.io.*; import java.util.*; import java.util.Arrays; public class MochaandMath { public static void main(String[] args) { FastScanner sc = new FastScanner(); PrintWriter pw = new PrintWriter(System.out); int i,x; int T = sc.ni(); for (int t = 0; t < T; t++) { int n = sc.ni(); int arr[]=new int[n]; for(i=0;i<n;i++) { arr[i]=sc.ni(); } x=arr[0]; for(i=1;i<n;i++) x&=arr[i]; pw.println(x); }

pw.close();
}

static class FastScanner {
StringTokenizer st;

public FastScanner() {
}

String next() {
while (st == null || !st.hasMoreElements()) {
try {
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
return st.nextToken();
}

int ni() {
return Integer.parseInt(next());
}
}

}

• -13