Xellos's blog

By Xellos, 4 years ago, In English
const int *
int const *
int * const
int const * const
const int * function (const arg) const

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Based on the e-maxx implementation and other stuff I found online, I pieced together a powerful treap. It can be used as a set<>, array, segment tree or (within limits) all of them at once.

Consider a set<> represented as a sorted array of distinct elements. You can insert/remove elements just like in a set<>. You can also find the index of any element in this array, remove an element by index — or insert an element at an index, but that will probably break the sortedness and you can't use the operations which rely on it anymore (you can still insert/remove elements by index). As long as the array is sorted, you can query lower bound / upper bound of any element, given as a pair (element, index).

Next, you can reverse a range, add to a range and query range sums; this will work all the time, but range addition can and reversing will break the sortedness. You can implement your own queries (like min/max) or combined range updates (paint+add) like in a segment tree. Since we need lazy propagation, everything is immutable (you can work around it e.g. with erase/insert) and I decided not to bother with iterators.

I took special care with randomisation. It uses testlib random_t and if equal priorities are detected (at insert), they're all regenerated, but it shouldn't happen with reasonably small data — the priorities are 60-bit, which is far above the Birthday Paradox threshold for just about anything.

The DS is templated over some type T, which has to be comparable and support addition / subtraction / multiplication by int (like a vector space in math).

It supports the following operations, all online in (with N being the current number of elements, ofc):

function action returns
insert(element) inserts element into a set bool(was it inserted?)
insert_pos(index, element) inserts element at index void
erase(element) removes element from a set bool(was it removed?)
erase_pos(index) removes element at index void
get_index(element) finds the element's index, size() if non-existent int in [0..size()]
[index] finds the element at index T (not T&)
lower_bound(element) finds the lower_bound() of that element, with index pair<T,int>
upper_bound(element) the same with upper_bound() pair<T,int>
shift(left,right,element) add element to everything in the range [left,right] void
reverse(left,right) reverse the range [left,right] void
sum(left,right) find the sum of the range [left,right] T

Also, there's the usual empty(), size(), is_sorted() (returns true if the sortedness hasn't been broken yet) and srand(), which lets you choose your seed if you don't want the testlib default.

I compared it with STL set<> on a million insert/erase/lower_bound operations; the treapset is ~3-4 times slower (which makes sense, since the structure supports many more operations). I also tested it on a million insert_pos/get_index/shift/reverse/sum operations; it took ~4 seconds locally. It seems to work...

 
 
 
 
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