Tutorial is loading...

**author's code:**

```
#include<cstdio>
const int MAX_V = 201;
bool achieve[MAX_V];
void solve() {
int n, x;
scanf("%d%d", &n, &x);
for(int i = 1; i <= n + x; i++) {
achieve[i] = false;
}
for(int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
int ranking;
scanf("%d", &ranking);
achieve[ranking] = true;
}
for(int k = n + x; k > 0; k--) {
int v = 0;
for(int i = 1; i <= k; i++) {
if(!achieve[i]) v++;
}
if(v <= x) {
printf("%d\n", k);
return;
}
}
}
int main() {
int T;
scanf("%d", &T);
while(T--) solve();
return 0;
}
```

Tutorial is loading...

**author's code**

```
#include<cstdio>
const int SIZE = 200000;
int p[SIZE];
int ans[SIZE][2];
int ans_cnt;
bool judge(int a[], int n){
static int used[SIZE+1];
for(int i = 1; i <= n; i++) used[i] = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < n; i++) used[a[i]] = 1;
for(int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
if(!used[i]) return 0;
}
return 1;
}
bool judge(int len1, int n){
return judge(p, len1) && judge(p + len1, n - len1);
}
int main() {
int t = 0;
scanf("%d", &t);
while(t--) {
ans_cnt = 0;
int n;
scanf("%d", &n);
int ma=0;
for(int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
scanf("%d", &p[i]);
if(ma < p[i]) ma = p[i];
}
if(judge(n - ma,n)) {
ans[ans_cnt][0] = n - ma;
ans[ans_cnt++][1] = ma;
}
if(ma * 2 != n && judge(ma,n)) {
ans[ans_cnt][0] = ma;
ans[ans_cnt++][1] = n - ma;
}
printf("%d\n", ans_cnt);
for(int i = 0; i < ans_cnt; i++) {
printf("%d %d\n", ans[i][0], ans[i][1]);
}
}
return 0;
}
```

Tutorial is loading...

**author's code**

```
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
const int SIZE = 100002;
int len[SIZE];
long long suffix_sum[SIZE];
void err() {puts("-1");}
void solve() {
int N, M;
scanf("%d%d", &N, &M);
for(int i = 1; i <= M; i++) {
scanf("%d", &len[i]);
if(len[i] + i - 1 > N) {
err();
return;
}
}
for(int i = M; i > 0; i--) {
suffix_sum[i] = suffix_sum[i + 1] + len[i];
}
if(suffix_sum[1] < N) {
err();
return;
}
for(int i = 1; i <= M; i++) {
printf("%lld", std::max((long long)i, N - suffix_sum[i] + 1));
if(i < M) putchar(' ');
else puts("");
}
}
int main() {
solve();
return 0;
}
```

Tutorial is loading...

**UPD: onthefloor provides proof for what I mention** here.

**author's code**

```
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
void solve(){
int d, m;
scanf("%d%d",&d, &m);
long long answer=1;
for(int i = 0; i < 30; i++) {
if(d < (1 << i)) break;
answer = answer * (std::min((1 << (i+1)) - 1, d) - (1 << i) + 2) % m;
}
answer--;
if(answer < 0) answer += m;
printf("%lld\n",answer);
}
int main() {
int T;
scanf("%d", &T);
while(T--) {
solve();
}
}
```

Tutorial is loading...

a super simple solution which is differet to this blog provided by Swistakk.

**author's code (from bottom to top with min heap)**

```
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
const int SIZE = 1<<20;
int INF = 1000000001;
pair<int, int> a[SIZE];
int final_v[SIZE];
bool used[SIZE];
int h, g;
void pull(int id) {
while(a[id] > min(a[id<<1], a[(id<<1)|1])) {
if(a[id<<1] < a[(id << 1) | 1]) {
swap(a[id<<1], a[id]);
id <<= 1;
}
else {
swap(a[(id<<1)|1], a[id]);
id = (id << 1) | 1;
}
if(id >= (1 << h)) return;
}
}
void solve() {
scanf("%d%d", &h, &g);
long long an = 0;
for(int i = 1; i < (1 << h); i++) {
used[i] = 0;
scanf("%d", &a[i].first);
a[i].second = i;
final_v[i] = 0;
}
h--;
for(int lv = h - 1; lv >= 0; lv--) {
int ll = 1 << lv;
int rr = 1 << (lv + 1);
for(int i = ll; i < rr; i++) {
pair<int, int> tmp = a[i];
int bot = i << (h - lv);
a[i] = a[bot];
a[bot] = make_pair(INF, 0);
pull(i);
if(lv < g) {
int need_mi = max(final_v[i * 2], final_v[i * 2 + 1]);
while(a[i].first < need_mi) {
a[i] = make_pair(INF, 0);
pull(i);
}
an += final_v[i] = a[i].first;
used[a[i].second] = 1;
a[i] = tmp;
pull(i);
}
else {
a[bot] = tmp;
}
}
}
printf("%lld\n", an);
bool first_time = true;
for(int i = (1 << (h + 1)) - 1; i > 0; i--) {
if(!used[i]) {
if(!first_time) printf(" ");
else first_time = false;
printf("%d", i);
}
}
puts("");
}
int main(){
int T;
scanf("%d", &T);
while(T--) solve();
return 0;
}
```

**isaf27's code(from bottom to top with sorted array)**

```
//#pragma GCC optimize("O3")
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
//defines
typedef long long ll;
typedef long double ld;
#define TIME clock() * 1.0 / CLOCKS_PER_SEC
#define prev _prev
#define y0 _y0
#define kill _kill
//permanent constants
const ld pi = acos(-1.0);
const int day[12] = {31, 28, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31};
const int digarr[10] = {6, 2, 5, 5, 4, 5, 6, 3, 7, 6};
const int dx[4] = {0, 1, 0, -1};
const int dy[4] = {1, 0, -1, 0};
const int dxo[8] = {-1, -1, -1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0};
const int dyo[8] = {-1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, -1, -1};
const int alf = 26;
const int dig = 10;
const int two = 2;
const int th = 3;
const ll prost = 239;
const ll btc = 30;
const ld eps = 1e-8;
const ll INF = (ll)(1e18 + 239);
const int BIG = (int)(1e9 + 239);
const int MOD = 1e9 + 7; //
//random
mt19937 rnd(239); //(chrono::high_resolution_clock::now().time_since_epoch().count());
//constants
const int M = (int)(2e5 + 239);
const int N = (int)(2e3 + 239);
const int L = 20;
const int T = (1 << 20) + 239;
const int B = 500;
const int X = 35;
const int T2 = 2 * T;
int h, g, a[T2], n;
bool mark[T];
int id[T], buf[T], timer;
bool cmp(int i, int j)
{
return (a[i] < a[j]);
}
int pos;
void dfs_write(int p)
{
id[pos++] = p;
if (2 * p + 1 <= n)
{
dfs_write(2 * p);
dfs_write(2 * p + 1);
}
}
int dfs(int p, int sz)
{
if ((1 << (g - 1)) <= p && p < (1 << g))
{
int l = timer;
timer += sz;
pos = l;
dfs_write(p);
sort(id + l, id + l + sz, cmp);
mark[id[l]] = true;
return id[l];
}
int l = timer;
int new_sz = ((sz - 1) / 2);
int s1 = dfs(2 * p, new_sz);
int s2 = dfs(2 * p + 1, new_sz);
merge(id + l, id + l + new_sz, id + l + new_sz, id + l + new_sz + new_sz, buf, cmp);
buf[sz - 1] = p;
for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++)
id[i + l] = buf[i];
timer++;
if (cmp(s1, s2))
s1 = s2;
for (int i = 0; i < sz; i++)
if (cmp(s1, id[i + l]))
{
mark[id[i + l]] = true;
return id[i + l];
}
return 0;
}
void rm(int i)
{
if (a[2 * i] == 0 && a[2 * i + 1] == 0)
{
a[i] = 0;
mark[i] = false;
return;
}
if (a[2 * i] > a[2 * i + 1])
{
a[i] = a[2 * i];
mark[i] = mark[2 * i];
rm(2 * i);
}
else
{
a[i] = a[2 * i + 1];
mark[i] = mark[2 * i + 1];
rm(2 * i + 1);
}
}
void dfs_ans(int p)
{
while (a[p] != 0 && !mark[p])
{
cout << p << " ";
rm(p);
}
if (a[p] == 0)
return;
dfs_ans(2 * p);
dfs_ans(2 * p + 1);
}
void solve()
{
cin >> h >> g;
n = (1 << h) - 1;
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
cin >> a[i];
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
mark[i] = false;
timer = 0;
dfs(1, n);
ll ans = 0;
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
if (mark[i])
ans += a[i];
cout << ans << "\n";
dfs_ans(1);
cout << "\n";
for (int i = 0; i <= n; i++)
a[i] = 0;
}
int32_t main()
{
#ifdef ONPC
freopen("input", "r", stdin);
#endif
ios::sync_with_stdio(0); cin.tie(0); cout.tie(0);
int t;
cin >> t;
while (t--)
solve();
return 0;
}
```

**author's code (from top to bottom)**

```
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
const int SIZE = 1<<20;
int INF = 1000000001;
int a[SIZE], ops[SIZE];
int h, g;
int qq[24], qn;
int pull(int id) {
int tmp = a[id];
a[id] = 0;
qn = 0;
qq[qn++] = id;
while(id * 2 < (1 << h) && a[id] < max(a[id<<1], a[(id<<1)|1])) {
if(a[id<<1] > a[(id << 1) | 1]) {
swap(a[id<<1], a[id]);
id <<= 1;
}
else {
swap(a[(id<<1)|1], a[id]);
id = (id << 1) | 1;
}
qq[qn++] = id;
}
if(id < (1 << g)) {
for(int i = qn - 1; i > 0; i--) {
a[qq[i]] = a[qq[i - 1]];
}
a[qq[0]] = tmp;
return 0;
}
return tmp;
}
void solve() {
scanf("%d%d", &h, &g);
long long an = 0;
for(int i = 1; i < (1 << h); i++) {
scanf("%d", &a[i]);
an += a[i];
}
int need = 0;
for(int i = 1; i < (1 << g); i++) {
while(1) {
int v = pull(i);
if(v) {
an -= v;
ops[need++] = i;
}
else break;
}
}
printf("%lld\n", an);
for(int i = 0; i < need; i++) printf("%d%c", ops[i], " \n"[i == need - 1]);
}
int main(){
int T;
scanf("%d", &T);
while(T--) solve();
return 0;
}
```

Tutorial is loading...

**author's code**

```
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
const int SIZE = 2e5+10;
char s[SIZE];
int cnt[SIZE];
int cc[26];
int all_cnt;
int ma;
void update_ma() {
while(ma > 0 && !cnt[ma]) ma--;
}
void dec1(int id) {
cnt[cc[id]]--;
cc[id]--;
cnt[cc[id]]++;
}
pair<int, int> stk[SIZE];
int sn;
int m;
int now;
int last_len;
void add(int i, bool flag) {
if(flag) {
dec1(stk[sn - 1].second);
dec1(stk[i].second);
all_cnt -= 2;
printf("%d %d\n",now + 1, now + stk[i].first);
update_ma();
sn--;
now -= stk[sn].first;
if(i + 1 < m) {
stk[i + 1].first += stk[sn].first;
}
else{
last_len += stk[sn].first;
}
}
else {
stk[sn++] = stk[i];
now += stk[i].first;
}
}
void solve(){
scanf("%s", s);
int n = strlen(s);
all_cnt = 0;
int lt = 0;
m = 0;
for(int i = 1; i < n; i++) {
if(s[i] == s[i - 1]) {
cc[s[i] - 'a']++;
all_cnt++;
stk[m++] = make_pair(i - lt, (int)(s[i] - 'a'));
lt = i;
}
}
last_len = n - lt;
ma = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < 26; i++) {
cnt[cc[i]]++;
ma = max(ma, cc[i]);
}
printf("%d\n", 1 + max(ma, (all_cnt + 1) / 2));
if(ma * 2 < all_cnt) {
sn = now = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < m; i++) {
add(i, sn && stk[sn - 1].second != stk[i].second && ma * 2 < all_cnt);
}
m = sn;
}
int main_id = -1;
for(int i = 0; i < 26; i++) {
if(cc[i] == ma) main_id = i;
}
sn = now = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < m; i++) {
add(i, sn && ((stk[sn - 1].second == main_id) ^ (stk[i].second == main_id)));
}
for(int i = 0; i < sn; i++) {
printf("%d %d\n",1 ,stk[i].first);
}
printf("%d %d\n", 1, last_len);
memset(cc, 0, sizeof(cc));
memset(cnt, 0, sizeof(int) * (ma + 1));
}
int main(){
int T;
scanf("%d", &T);
for(int i = 1; i <= T; i++) solve();
return 0;
}
```

Tutorial is loading...

**isaf27's solution**

```
//#pragma GCC optimize("O3")
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
//defines
typedef long long ll;
typedef long double ld;
#define TIME clock() * 1.0 / CLOCKS_PER_SEC
#define prev _prev
#define y0 _y0
#define kill _kill
//permanent constants
const ld pi = acos(-1.0);
const int day[12] = {31, 28, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31};
const int digarr[10] = {6, 2, 5, 5, 4, 5, 6, 3, 7, 6};
const int dx[4] = {0, 1, 0, -1};
const int dy[4] = {1, 0, -1, 0};
const int dxo[8] = {-1, -1, -1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0};
const int dyo[8] = {-1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, -1, -1};
const int alf = 26;
const int dig = 10;
const int two = 2;
const int th = 3;
const ll prost = 239;
const ll btc = 30;
const ld eps = 1e-8;
const ll INF = (ll)(1e18 + 239);
const int BIG = (int)(1e9 + 239);
const int MOD = 1e9 + 7; //
//random
mt19937 rnd(239); //(chrono::high_resolution_clock::now().time_since_epoch().count());
//constants
const int M = (int)(4e5 + 239);
const int N = (int)(2e3 + 239);
const int L = 20;
const int T = (1 << 18) + 239;
const int B = 500;
const int X = 210;
ll up(ll a, ll b)
{
return (a + b - 1) / b;
}
ll down(ll a, ll b)
{
return a / b;
}
int m;
ll l[M], n, k;
void solve()
{
cin >> n >> m >> k;
ll pr = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < m; i++)
{
ll p;
cin >> p;
l[i] = p - pr;
pr = p;
}
l[m++] = n - pr;
//for (int i = 0; i < m; i++)
// cerr << l[i] << " ";
//cerr << "\n";
ll sum = k + m;
ll bl = 1;
ll br = n + 1;
while (br - bl > 1)
{
ll h = (bl + br) >> 1LL;
ll cur = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < m; i++)
cur += down(l[i], h);
if (sum <= cur)
bl = h;
else
br = h;
}
ll MIN = bl;
bl = 0;
br = n + 1;
while (br - bl > 1)
{
ll h = (bl + br) >> 1LL;
ll cur = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < m; i++)
cur += up(l[i], h);
if (sum >= cur)
br = h;
else
bl = h;
}
ll MAX = br;
vector<pair<ll, ll>> ban;
for (int i = 0; i < m; i++)
{
if (up(l[i], MAX) <= down(l[i], MIN))
continue;
ll bl = 0;
ll br = MIN;
while (br - bl > 1)
{
ll h = (bl + br) >> 1LL;
if (down(l[i], h) == down(l[i], MIN))
br = h;
else
bl = h;
}
ll first = MIN - br;
bl = MAX;
br = INF;
while (br - bl > 1)
{
ll h = (bl + br) >> 1LL;
if (up(l[i], MAX) == up(l[i], h))
bl = h;
else
br = h;
}
ll second = bl - MAX;
ban.push_back(make_pair(first, second));
}
ll add = MAX - MIN;
if (ban.empty())
{
cout << add << "\n";
return;
}
sort(ban.begin(), ban.end());
vector<pair<ll, ll>> a;
for (int i = 0; i < (int)ban.size(); i++)
{
while (!a.empty() && a.back().second <= ban[i].second)
a.pop_back();
a.push_back(ban[i]);
}
ll ans = INF;
ans = min(a[0].second + 1, ans);
ans = min(a.back().first + 1, ans);
for (int i = 0; i + 1 < (int)a.size(); i++)
ans = min(ans, a[i].first + a[i + 1].second + 2);
cout << ans + add << "\n";
}
int32_t main()
{
#ifdef ONPC
freopen("input", "r", stdin);
#endif
ios::sync_with_stdio(0); cin.tie(0); cout.tie(0);
int t;
cin >> t;
while (t--)
solve();
return 0;
}
```

**author's solution**

```
/*{{{*/
#include<cstdio>
#include<cstdlib>
#include<cstring>
#include<cmath>
#include<algorithm>
#include<string>
#include<iostream>
#include<sstream>
#include<set>
#include<map>
#include<queue>
#include<bitset>
#include<vector>
#include<limits.h>
#include<assert.h>
#define SZ(X) ((int)(X).size())
#define ALL(X) (X).begin(), (X).end()
#define REP(I, N) for (int I = 0; I < (N); ++I)
#define REPP(I, A, B) for (int I = (A); I < (B); ++I)
#define FOR(I, A, B) for (int I = (A); I <= (B); ++I)
#define FORS(I, S) for (int I = 0; S[I]; ++I)
#define RS(X) scanf("%s", (X))
#define SORT_UNIQUE(c) (sort(c.begin(),c.end()), c.resize(distance(c.begin(),unique(c.begin(),c.end()))))
#define GET_POS(c,x) (lower_bound(c.begin(),c.end(),x)-c.begin())
#define CASET int ___T; scanf("%d", &___T); for(int cs=1;cs<=___T;cs++)
#define MP make_pair
#define PB push_back
#define MS0(X) memset((X), 0, sizeof((X)))
#define MS1(X) memset((X), -1, sizeof((X)))
#define LEN(X) strlen(X)
#define F first
#define S second
using namespace std;
typedef long long LL;
typedef unsigned long long ULL;
typedef long double LD;
typedef pair<int,int> PII;
typedef vector<int> VI;
typedef vector<LL> VL;
typedef vector<PII> VPII;
typedef pair<LL,LL> PLL;
typedef vector<PLL> VPLL;
template<class T> void _R(T &x) { cin >> x; }
void _R(int &x) { scanf("%d", &x); }
void _R(LL &x) { scanf("%lld", &x); }
void _R(double &x) { scanf("%lf", &x); }
void _R(char &x) { scanf(" %c", &x); }
void _R(char *x) { scanf("%s", x); }
void R() {}
template<class T, class... U> void R(T &head, U &... tail) { _R(head); R(tail...); }
template<class T> void _W(const T &x) { cout << x; }
void _W(const int &x) { printf("%d", x); }
void _W(const LL &x) { printf("%lld", x); }
void _W(const double &x) { printf("%.16f", x); }
void _W(const char &x) { putchar(x); }
void _W(const char *x) { printf("%s", x); }
template<class T,class U> void _W(const pair<T,U> &x) {_W(x.F); putchar(' '); _W(x.S);}
template<class T> void _W(const vector<T> &x) { for (auto i = x.begin(); i != x.end(); _W(*i++)) if (i != x.cbegin()) putchar(' '); }
void W() {}
template<class T, class... U> void W(const T &head, const U &... tail) { _W(head); putchar(sizeof...(tail) ? ' ' : '\n'); W(tail...); }
#ifdef HOME
#define DEBUG(...) {printf("# ");printf(__VA_ARGS__);puts("");}
#else
#define DEBUG(...)
#endif
int MOD = 1e9+7;
void ADD(LL& x,LL v){x=(x+v)%MOD;if(x<0)x+=MOD;}
/*}}}*/
const int SIZE = 1e6+10;
LL a[SIZE],num[SIZE];
bool done[SIZE],be_added[SIZE];
int n;
LL K;
LL get_upper_bound(int i){
LL v=a[i]/num[i];
if(v*num[i]!=a[i])v++;
return v;
}
LL get_next_upper_bound(int i){
LL v=a[i]/(num[i]-1);
if(v*(num[i]-1)!=a[i])v++;
return v;
}
LL go(){
if(K==n){
return a[n-1]-a[0];
}
LL ll=1,rr=a[n-1];
while(ll<rr){
LL mm=(ll+rr)/2;
LL need=0;
REP(i,n){
if(a[i]>mm)need+=a[i]/mm;
else need++;
}
if(need>=K)ll=mm+1;
else rr=mm;
}
LL low=ll;
VPLL pp;
LL need=0;
REP(i,n){
if(a[i]>=low){
num[i]=a[i]/low;
pp.PB({a[i]/(num[i]+1),i});
}
else {
num[i]=1;
}
need+=num[i];
}
{
bool fail=0;
REP(i,n){
if(get_upper_bound(i)>=low){
fail=1;
break;
}
}
if(!fail) return low-1-min(low-1,a[0]);
}
REP(i,n){
if(a[i]>=low&&a[i]/(num[i]+1)==low-1){
LL v=a[i]/(low-1);
LL mi=min(v-num[i],K-need);
num[i]+=mi;
need+=mi;
if(need==K)break;
}
}
priority_queue<PLL,VPLL,greater<PLL>>added;
priority_queue<PLL>top;
LL mi=a[0];
REP(i,n){
if(num[i]>1){
added.push(MP(get_next_upper_bound(i),i));
}
top.push(MP(get_upper_bound(i),i));
mi=min(mi,a[i]/num[i]);
}
LL an=top.top().F-mi;
REP(i,n)be_added[i]=done[i]=0;
LL ma=low-1;
while(!top.empty()&&!added.empty()){
int id=top.top().S;
if(be_added[id])break;
done[id]=1;
top.pop();
num[id]++;
mi=min(mi,a[id]/num[id]);
auto tmp=added.top();
added.pop();
if(done[tmp.S])break;
be_added[tmp.S]=1;
num[tmp.S]--;
if(num[tmp.S]>1)added.push({get_next_upper_bound(tmp.S),tmp.S});
ma=max(ma,tmp.F);
an=min(an,(top.empty()?ma:max(ma,top.top().F))-mi);
}
return an;
}
void solve(){
LL L;
//R(n,K,L);
R(L,n,K);
K+=n+1;
LL lt=0;
REP(i,n){
LL x;
R(x);
a[i]=x-lt;
lt=x;
}
a[n++]=L-lt;
sort(a,a+n);
W(go());
}
int main(){
CASET{
solve();
}
return 0;
}
```