Hi there! Imagine you're participating in codechef long challenge and you see a problem from chemthan asking you to calculate some sums of powers like 1^{p} + 2^{p} + ... + *n*^{p} for all *p* from 0 to *k*. You immediately understand what's going on here and take Faulhaber's formula from your wide pants, do ya? Just take a look at it!

Beautiful, right? Wrong! This formula is dumb and it's hard to understand and remember! Why would you ever think about Bernoulli's number on any contest which lasts less than a week? And what the hell are those Bernoulli numbers?! Here is what you should do:

Let *S*_{p} = 1^{p} + ... + *n*^{p}. Consider its exponential generating function (EGF):

Now you can simply find *S*_{0}, ..., *S*_{k} by finding inverse series for and multiplying it with . Enjoy your power sums without Stirling and/or Bernoulli numbers!

Exercise: Solve this problem in .

P.S. Yes, you basically perform the same calculations as in Faulhaber's formula, but now you hopefully understand what you're doing.